For many years, each Service has maintained a health surveillance system of its own personnel.
Each Service maintains health databases on personnel with military occupational specialties of importance to their global operations. Examples are the longitudinal health databases on all aviators in the Air Force.
The Total Army Injury and Health Outcome Database (TAIHOD) is an administrative electronic database with origins in 1994 as a component of the Women’s Health Initiative. Over time the database has grown into its present form. It uses datasets common to DMSS but is structured differently to serve research, in contrast with operational surveillance needs. This database is limited to the Army because injury and disability reporting is not standardized across Services and because safety and accident reporting is also not standardized. The database is maintained at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. There is an initiative to broaden this database further. Currently, 25,000 medical records of Army personnel accessed in 1998, 1999, and 2000 are being reviewed and scanned into the database.
The Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity (AMSARA) (available on the Internet at http://amsara.amedd.army.mil) was established in 1996 to support the Accession Medical Standards Steering Committee of the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness). AMSARA is located in the Division of Preventive Medicine at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC. AMSARA study datasets are structured to answer specific queries from sponsors. Collectively they represent many individual databases rather than a single, multipurpose database. They are constructed by AMSARA researchers who examine individual recruit medical and personnel records and MEPCOM and Service data pertaining to the accession of recruits.