ELIZABETH CANTWELL is the deputy division leader for science and technology in the International, Space and Response Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. She previously served as section leader for the Micro and Nanotechnology Center, Lawrence Livermore’s engineering research center for fabricating small sensors and devices. She earned an undergraduate degree in psychology from the University of Chicago and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. She also holds an M.B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School of Business. Dr. Cantwell began her career building life support systems for crewed space missions with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. She was a member of the NRC Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space (1996-1997) and of the IOM Committee on Review of NASA’s Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap (2004-2005).

MICHAEL J. ECONS directs the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism at Indiana University. Dr. Econs has used a combination of clinical and molecular research to substantially advance the field of metabolic bone disease. His contributions to this effort include the identification of the genes responsible for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. He has also made contributions to the understanding of the genetics of osteoporosis and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. He is a member of the Central Society for Clinical Investigation and the American Society for Clinical Investigation and has lectured on various topics in metabolic bone disease at numerous academic institutions and medical/scientific meetings.

TOMMY W. HOLLOWAY retired in 2002 as manager of the International Space Station Program Office for NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Mr. Holloway was named space station manager in April 1999 after serving as manager of the space shuttle program for nearly 4 years. He began his career with NASA in 1963, planning activities for Gemini and Apollo flights at what was then known as the Manned Spacecraft Center. He was a flight director in Mission Control for early space shuttle flights and became chief of the office in 1985. In 1989, he was named assistant director for the Space Shuttle Program for the Mission Operations Directorate. He served as deputy manager for program integration with the Space Shuttle Program and director of the Phase I Program of Shuttle-Mir dockings before being named space shuttle program manager in August 1995. He served on the NRC Committee on Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope (2004-2005).

HERMAN J. MERTE, JR., is professor emeritus in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Michigan. His research interests involve heat transfer, including dynamics of phase change, boiling, and condensation; study of boiling heat transfer (pool and flow) in microgravity; and heat transfer in wire bundles. Dr. Merte has been involved in heat transfer research related to phase changes of boiling and condensation under reduced- and high-gravity fields since 1957. This included boiling (pool) of water and liquid nitrogen at up to 20 g, of water at up to 300 g, of mercury at 300 psi and up to 15 g, of liquid hydrogen in a 1.4-second drop tower; and dropwise and film condensation of water at up to 1,000 g. Since 1984 this included flow boiling of R-113 at various levels of heat flux and liquid subcooling, at various flow velocities, and various orientations relative to Earth’s gravity field; and pool boiling of R-113 at various levels of heat flux and subcooling in long-term microgravity (2 minutes per condition) in the GAS on the space shuttle, for 5 flights, and a total of 45 experiments.

JAMES PAWELCZYK is a physiologist at Pennsylvania State University. He was a payload specialist on Space Transportation System-90 (Neurolab) and flew in 1998 with a focus on neuroscience. Dr. Pawelczyk was a member of the NASA Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee in the Office of Biological and Physical Research. He was a member of the ReMaP Task Force (2002), charged with reprioritizing research on the International Space Station. He has received NASA funding as an individual principal investigator, as a project leader on center grants, and in contracts (including international collaboration) since 1993. Dr. Pawelczyk’s research areas include central neural control of the cardiovascular system and compensatory mechanisms for conditioning and deconditioning. He is knowledgeable about NASA

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