are branded whereas only 19 percent of fruits and vegetables are nationally branded (Harris, 2002). Results from a Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA) survey of 800 consumers found that Americans across all demographic groups consider a product’s brand before making a final purchase selection, and consumers will pay a higher price for perceived quality in premium branded products and will go to a different store if a preferred brand is not available (GMA, 2002; Pollack Associates, 2004). Key factors that influenced their brand selection include experience (36 percent indicated that prior family exposure influences brand choice) and peer endorsement (13 percent) (GMA, 2002). Branding has become a normalized part of life for American children and adolescents (Schor, 2004), as marketers seek to develop positive and sustained brand relationships with young consumers and their parents in order to create brand recognition and foster brand loyalty, brand advantage, and brand equity (McDonald’s Corporation, 1996; McNeal, 1999; Moore et al., 2002).
Advertising is the most visible form of marketing. It is paid public presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by a sponsor (Kotler and Armstrong, 2004), intended to bring a product to the attention of consumers through a variety of media channels such as broadcast and cable television, radio, print, billboards, the Internet, or personal contact (Boone and Kurtz, 1998). Marketers recognize its value by itself, and also view it as contributing to the success of other strategies by (1) building brand awareness and brand loyalty among potential consumers, and (2) creating perceived value by persuading consumers that they are getting more than the product itself (e.g., social esteem, peer respect).
Consumer promotion, also called sales promotion, represents the promotional efforts that are designed to have an immediate impact on sales. Consumer promotion includes media and nonmedia marketing communications targeted directly to the consumer that are used for a predetermined and limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand, or improve product availability. Examples of sales promotion include coupons, discounts and sales, contests, point-of-purchase displays, rebates, and gifts and incentives (Boone and Kurtz, 1998).
Trade promotion is a broad category of marketing that targets interme-