“organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit an organization and its stakeholders” (AMA, 2005). Marketing involves conducting research, defining the target market, analyzing the competition, and implementing the basic processes that constitute the marketing mix or drivers of business (McCarthy, 1975). The key components are the following:

  • Product (i.e., features, quality, quantity, packaging)

  • Place (i.e., location, outlets, distribution points used to reach the target market)

  • Price (i.e., strategy, determinants, levels)

  • Promotion (i.e., advertising, sales promotion, public relations, trade promotion)

Advertising is a form of paid nonpersonal public presentation and the promotion of ideas, goods, or services by a sponsor (Kotler and Armstrong, 2004). It is a specific type of marketing that brings a product to the attention of consumers and may be delivered through a variety of media channels such as television, radio, print, billboards, personal contact, and the Internet (Boone and Kurtz, 1998). Advertising is the most visible form of marketing that contributes to the success of other strategies by (1) providing the conditions for developing a company’s brand image by building brand awareness and brand loyalty among potential consumers, and (2) creating perceived value by persuading consumers that they are getting more than the product itself (e.g., a meal, food, or beverage product).

Ecological Perspective

Consistent with the committee’s charge, the primary focus of this report is the evaluation of the available evidence for assessing the nature of the relationship between marketing and the diets and health of children and youth. The committee used a simplified ecological perspective to conceptualize the relationship of food marketing to other important influences on the diets and related health outcomes of children and youth (Figure 1-1; see also Chapter 3). This perspective places food and beverage marketing influences within a context that recognizes the multiple interactions among factors that also affect children’s and adolescents’ food preferences and choices, eating behaviors, total calorie intake, diet quality, and health outcomes. The use of an ecological perspective requires an understanding of processes and intertwining interactions among individuals, communities, and their social, economic, cultural, and physical environments over time (IOM, 2001). This approach considers the relative strengths of the multiple



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