TABLE 5-16 Descriptive Characteristics of Research on the Influence of Commercial Marketing on Young People’s Diet-Related Health

Characteristic

Significant Results

Nonsignificant Results

Total Results*

51

23

Decade Published

1980

3

1

1990

14

11

2000

34

11

Research Design

Experimental

1

0

Natural experimental

0

0

Longitudinal

12

5

Cross-sectional

38

18

Age Group*

Infants and toddlers (under 2)

0

1

Younger children (2–5)

11

6

Older children (6–11)

44

14

Teens (12–18)

23

10

Sample Size

0–49

0

1

50–99

4

2

100–499

13

8

500–999

6

5

1,000 or more

28

7

Type of Marketing

TV ads: observed in natural setting

0

2

TV ads: TV viewing only

41

15

TV ads: TV viewing and other media use

10

6

Type of Diet-Related Health Outcome*

Adiposity

50

23

Other

2

0

NOTE: The two “Other” outcomes were cholesterol levels and cardiovascular fitness.

*One result in the evidence table could be about more than one age group or type of diet-related health outcome. For these two characteristics the column totals can be more than the number of results.

This body of research almost exclusively provides evidence about the relationship of television advertising exposure to adiposity. Seventy-three of the 74 results assessed adiposity as the diet-related health outcome; one (Guillaume et al., 1997) also assessed cardiovascular fitness, and one only assessed cholesterol levels (Wong et al., 1992). Typically, adiposity was



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