Signorielli N, Lears M. 1992. Television and children’s conceptions of nutrition: Unhealthy messages. Health Commun 4(4):245–257.

Signorielli N, Staples J. 1997. Television and children’s conceptions of nutrition. Health Commun 9(4):289–301.

Stettler N, Signer TM, Suter PM. 2004. Electronic games and environmental factors associated with childhood obesity in Switzerland. Obes Res 12(6):896–903.

Stoneman Z, Brody GH. 1981. Peers as mediators of television food advertisements aimed at children. Dev Psychol 17(6):853–858.

Stoneman Z, Brody GH. 1982. The indirect impact of child-oriented advertisements on mother–child interactions. J Appl Dev Psychol 2:369–376.

Storey ML, Forshee RA, Weaver AR, Sansalone WR. 2003. Demographic and lifestyle factors associated with body mass index among children and adolescents. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54(6):491–503.

Sugimori H, Yoshida K, Izuno T, Miyakawa M, Suka M, Sekine M, Yamagami T, Kagamimori S. 2004. Analysis of factors that influence body mass index from ages 3 to 6 years: A study based on the Toyama cohort study. Pediatr Int 46(3):302–310.


Tanasescu M, Ferris AM, Himmelgreen DA, Rodriguez N, Perez-Escamilla R. 2000. Biobehavioral factors are associated with obesity in Puerto Rican children. J Nutr 130(7): 1734–1742.

Taras HL, Sallis JF, Patterson TL, Nader PR, Nelson JA. 1989. Television’s influence on children’s diet and physical activity. Dev Behav Pediatr 10(4):176–180.

Taras H, Zive M, Nader P, Berry CC, Hoy T, Boyd C. 2000. Television advertising and classes of food products consumed in a paediatric population. Int J Ad 19:487–493.

Toyran M, Ozmert E, Yurdakok K. 2002. Television viewing and its effect on physical health of schoolage children. Turk J Pediatr 44(3):194–203.

Tremblay MS, Willms JD. 2003. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27(9):1100–1105.

Trost SG, Kerr LM, Ward DS, Pate RR. 2001. Physical activity and determinants of physical activity in obese and non-obese children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25(6):822–829.

Tucker LA. 1986. The relationship of television viewing to physical fitness and obesity. Adolescence 21(84):797–806.


Utter J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Jeffery R, Story M. 2003. Couch potatoes or French fries: Are sedentary behaviors associated with body mass index, physical activity, and dietary behaviors among adolescents? J Am Diet Assoc 103(10):1298–1305.


Vandewater EA, Shim MS, Caplovitz AG. 2004. Linking obesity and activity level with children’s television and video game use. J Adolesc 27(1):71–85.


Wake M, Hesketh K, Waters E. 2003. Television, computer use and body mass index in Australian primary school children. J Paediatr Child Health 39(2):130–134.

Waller CE, Du S, Popkin BM. 2003. Patterns of overweight, inactivity, and snacking in Chinese children. Obes Res 11(8):957–961.

Wolf AM, Gortmaker SL, Cheung L, Gray HM, Herzog DB, Colditz GA. 1993. Activity, inactivity, and obesity: Racial, ethnic, and age differences among schoolgirls. Am J Public Health 83(11):1625–1627.

Wong ND, Hei TK, Qaqundah PY, Davidson DM, Bassin SL, Gold KV. 1992. Television viewing and pediatric hypercholesterolemia. Pediatrics 90(1):75–79.

Woodward DR, Cumming FJ, Ball PJ, Williams HM, Hornsby H, Boon JA. 1997. Does television affect teenagers’ food choices? J Human Nutr Diet 10:229–235.


Yavas U, Abdul-Gader A. 1993. Impact of TV commercials on Saudi children’s purchase behaviour. Marketing Intelligence Planning 11(2):37–43.


Zive MM, Frank-Spohrer GC, Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Elder JP, Berry CC, Broyles SL, Nader PR. 1998. Determinants of dietary intake in a sample of white and Mexican-American children. J Am Diet Assoc 98(11):1282–1289.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement