I
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

J. Michael McGinnis, M.D., M.P.P. (Chair), is a Senior Scholar at the Institute of Medicine (IOM), The National Academies. He was previously Senior Vice President and Counselor to the President at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He holds degrees in political science, medicine, and public policy from University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and Harvard University. For nearly three decades, he has been a participant in national prevention policy, including a continuous appointment—Assistant Surgeon General and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health—throughout the Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton Administrations, from 1977 to 1995, with responsibility for coordinating health-promotion and disease-prevention activities. From 1978 to 1995, he was Chairman of the Nutrition Policy Board at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Internationally, Dr. McGinnis held leadership positions in 1974–1975 to eradicate smallpox in India, and in 1995–1996 for the post-war reconstruction of the health sector in Bosnia. His academic work has included appointments as Scholar-in-Residence at the National Academy of Sciences and to the faculties of George Washington, Princeton, and Duke Universities. He has published numerous papers on health policy, public health, preventive medicine, nutrition, and tobacco, and served on various journal, scientific, and community boards. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a Fellow in the American College of Epidemiology and the American College of Preventive Medicine, and has received various public service awards. Recent IOM committee work includes the IOM Committee on Establishing a National Cord Blood



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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? I Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff J. Michael McGinnis, M.D., M.P.P. (Chair), is a Senior Scholar at the Institute of Medicine (IOM), The National Academies. He was previously Senior Vice President and Counselor to the President at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He holds degrees in political science, medicine, and public policy from University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and Harvard University. For nearly three decades, he has been a participant in national prevention policy, including a continuous appointment—Assistant Surgeon General and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health—throughout the Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton Administrations, from 1977 to 1995, with responsibility for coordinating health-promotion and disease-prevention activities. From 1978 to 1995, he was Chairman of the Nutrition Policy Board at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Internationally, Dr. McGinnis held leadership positions in 1974–1975 to eradicate smallpox in India, and in 1995–1996 for the post-war reconstruction of the health sector in Bosnia. His academic work has included appointments as Scholar-in-Residence at the National Academy of Sciences and to the faculties of George Washington, Princeton, and Duke Universities. He has published numerous papers on health policy, public health, preventive medicine, nutrition, and tobacco, and served on various journal, scientific, and community boards. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a Fellow in the American College of Epidemiology and the American College of Preventive Medicine, and has received various public service awards. Recent IOM committee work includes the IOM Committee on Establishing a National Cord Blood

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Stem Cell Bank Program, and the IOM Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. Earlier National Academies’ service includes the Food and Nutrition Board and the Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health, and the Environment. Daniel R. Anderson, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Massachusetts. He received his Ph.D. in psychology from Brown University. Dr. Anderson’s research focuses on children and television, particularly the cognitive and educational aspects. His published work concerns attention, comprehension, viewing behavior, and the long-term impact of television on children’s development. Dr. Anderson’s current research interests include toddler understanding of television, the effects of adult background television on infant and toddler behavior, and brain activation during television viewing. He is currently on national advisory boards for PBS Ready to Learn, Children’s Digital Media Center (CDMC), and the Children’s Advertising Review Unit of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. Dr. Anderson has been involved in the development of many television programs, including Allegra’s Window, Gullah Gullah Island, Bear in the Big Blue House, Blue’s Clues, and Dora the Explorer. He was also an advisor to Captain Kangaroo, The Wubbulous World of Dr. Seuss, Sesame Street, and Fimbles (BBC). J. Howard Beales III, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Strategic Management and Public Policy at George Washington University in Washington, DC. From 2001 to early August 2004, Dr. Beales served as Director of the Bureau of Consumer Protection at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), where he was responsible for the development and implementation of the National Do Not Call Registry. Dr. Beales received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago and his B.A. in economics from Georgetown University. Dr. Beales began his career at the FTC in 1977 as an economist specializing in consumer protection. In 1981, he was appointed Assistant to the Director of the Bureau of Consumer Protection, the first economist to hold that position, and served as Associate Director for Policy and Evaluation in the Bureau from 1983 to 1987. He developed policy in a number of key areas, including the Commission’s Deception and Advertising Substantiation Policy Statements. Dr. Beales left the FTC in 1987 for a 1-year appointment as Branch Chief in the Office of Management and Budget’s Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, where he managed the review of regulations proposed by the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services (DHHS), Housing and Urban Development, and Treasury. His areas of expertise include consumer research, contract law, economics of commercial free speech, applied microeconomics, marketing and advertising, public policy toward business, and safety and health regulations.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? David V. B. Britt, M.P.A., is the retired President and Chief Executive Officer of the Sesame Workshop. Mr. Britt’s professional experience includes executive positions with the U.S. Agency for International Development, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. He has presented to various congressional committees on media and informal education, federal support of educational media, advertising limits, and mandatory educational programming requirements for commercial television. Since his retirement, Mr. Britt has been engaged in consulting and leadership development for nonprofit organizations. He is currently a Director of the Education Trust and Board Chair of Kids Voting USA. Mr. Britt is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is also a member of the Board of Advisors for the Initiative on Social Enterprise at the Harvard Business School, as well as the Hauser Center at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He is a former member of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families (BCYF). He received a B.A. from Wesleyan University and an M.P.A. from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Sandra L. Calvert, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology at Georgetown University and the Director of the Children’s Digital Media Center (CDMC). She received her Ph.D. in developmental and child psychology from the University of Kansas. Dr. Calvert’s interdisciplinary work, spanning the fields of psychology, communications, public policy, and education, seeks to improve the well-being of children and adolescents by bridging the gap between knowledge generation and knowledge application. She has examined social policy issues revolving around the Children’s Television Act, in which broadcasters are legally required to provide educational and informational television programs for children. She is currently examining the role that interactivity and identity play in children’s learning from entertainment media at the CDMC, a National Science Foundation-based research consortium at Georgetown University, the University of California, Riverside, the University of California, Los Angeles, Northwestern University, and the University of Texas at Austin. She has received additional support for the CDMC from the Stuart Family Foundation. Dr. Calvert is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and a member of the Society for Research in Child Development and the International Communication Association. Dr. Calvert previously served on the National Academy of Sciences Committee which assessed Tools and Strategies for Protecting Children from Pornography and Other Objectionable Content on the Internet. In 2005, she received the Applied or Public Research Award from the International Communication Association. Professor Calvert has consulted for Nickelodeon Online, Sesame Workshop, and Blue’s Clues to

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? influence the development of children’s television programs, computer and Internet software, and online educational games. Keith T. Darcy, M.B.A., is the Executive Director of the Ethics Officer Association in Waltham, MA. Previously, he served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Darcy Partners, Inc. (DPI). He has combined a 30-year career in the financial services industry with his profession as an educator and his long-term involvement in business ethics, corporate governance, and organizational leadership. DPI consults with boards and senior executives in the areas of leadership, ethics, governance, and reputation risk, as well as the alignment of corporate culture, brand loyalty, and organizational performance. Mr. Darcy currently serves on the boards of directors of E*Trade Bank and New York National Bank, is Chairman of the Board of the Better Business Bureaus Foundation, and chairs its Audit Committee. Additionally he is Director Emeritus of the Ethics Officer Association. Mr. Darcy teaches Ethics & Leadership in the Executive Programs at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He is also Executive-in-Residence at the University of Maryland University College; a Teaching Fellow at the R. H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland; and Executive-in-Residence at Manhattanville College, Purchase, NY. Mr. Darcy is an Executive Fellow and Vice Chairman of the Center for Business Ethics at Bentley College in Waltham, MA. In addition, he moderates programs for the Aspen Institute in Aspen, Colorado. He previously served as Associate Dean and Distinguished Professor of Business at Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business. Mr. Darcy holds a B.S. from Fordham University’s College of Business and an M.B.A. from the Hagan Graduate School of Business at Iona College, and has completed additional post-graduate study at New York Theological Seminary. Aimé Dorr, Ph.D., is the Dean of the UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies. She received her Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Stanford University. Her research interests include the role of electronic media in formal and informal education and socialization; processes by which young people make sense of, utilize, and are affected by electronic media; and media literacy. Dr. Dorr’s professional memberships include the American Educational Research Association, American Library Association, American Psychological Association, International Communication Association, National Society for the Study of Education, and Society for Research in Child Development among others. She is the Co-chair of Educational Outreach for UCLA. Dr. Dorr has been a consultant for numerous television and other media-related projects, most recently La

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Opinión, a Los Angeles Spanish-language daily newspaper for the Latino Parents Awareness Campaign, and a Spanish-language guide to K–12 standards and college preparation. She is currently consulting for KCEd, an initiative using public television and the Internet to educate and train child caregivers, and she serves as a member of the Board of Educational Advisers for the Children’s Advertising Review Unit of the Better Business Bureaus. Lloyd J. Kolbe, Ph.D., has held appointments in academic, private-sector, and federal agencies, and is currently Professor of Applied Health Science at Indiana University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Toledo. Dr. Kolbe has served as President of the American School Health Association, Vice President of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, Visiting Professor at Beijing Medical University, Lead for Health Promotion within the U.S.–Russian Joint Commission on Economic and Technological Cooperation, Chairman of the World Health Organization Expert Committee on School Health Programs, member of the U.S. Senior Biomedical Research Service, and founding Director of the Division of Adolescent and School Health at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For his efforts to improve child and adolescent health, Dr. Kolbe has received awards given by the U.S. Public Health Service, the DHHS, and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education. Dr. Kolbe has authored more than 120 publications and he currently serves as Vice Chair of the BCYF’s Committee on Adolescent Health and Development, a standing IOM committee. Dale L. Kunkel, Ph.D., is a Professor of Communication at the University of Arizona in Tucson. He is the former Director of the University of California (UC) Santa Barbara Washington Program at the UC Washington Center in Washington, DC. He studies children and media issues from several diverse perspectives, including television effects research as well as assessments of media industry content and practices. Dr. Kunkel received his Ph.D. from the Annenberg School of Communication at the University of Southern California. He was awarded a Congressional Science Fellowship from the Society for Research in Child Development. During that fellowship he served as an advisor to Congress on children and media issues. Dr. Kunkel is considered an expert on children’s media policy and has delivered invited testimony at hearings before the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the Federal Communications Commission. He is a former Chair of the American Psychological Association’s Committee on Children, Youth, and Families, and was senior author on the scientific report of the APA Task Force on Advertising and Children in 2003. He served as a Principal Investigator on the National Television Violence Study (1994–98), and

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? more recently directed projects examining the V-chip program ratings and sexual socialization messages supported by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Paul Kurnit, M.A., is Founder and President of Kurnit Communications and KidShop, two marketing consulting firms in Chappaqua, New York, and a Clinical Professor of Marketing at Pace University’s Lubin School of Business. He earned an M.A. in communication (theory and media) from Queens College in New York City and a B.A. in communication (rhetoric and public address) from the University of Wisconsin. Mr. Kurnit has broad experience in marketing and communications, advertising, entertainment, brand strategy, new product development, and teaching with special expertise in youth and family marketing and cultural trends. He previously served as President of Griffin Bacal, a DDB Worldwide advertising agency, where he had oversight for advertising, promotion, and public relations for a wide range of clients including Hasbro, PepsiCo, General Mills, Pillsbury, and Nestlé as well as assignments from Disney, McDonald’s, General Mills, Good Humor, Veryfine, Mead Johnson, and others. At Griffin Bacal, he created specialty business units to focus on a diverse range of marketing services including youth trend tracking (Trend Walk™), youth consulting (Kid Think Inc.™), and online research (LiveWire: Today’s Families Online™). He also served as Executive Vice President of Sunbow Entertainment, producers of hundreds of half hours of children’s television programming including, the Peabody Award receiving The Great Space Coaster, two after-school specials for CBS and ABC, and two network television series for Fox and CBS. Mr. Kurnit is a member of the Advertising Council Creative Review Committee and serves on the advisory boards of the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) and the board of the Advertising Educational Foundation. Mr. Kurnit has contributed his expertise to a number of social marketing initiatives to address youth cheating, teen smoking, bias and diversity, marijuana use, child abuse, gender, and nutrition. Robert C. Post, Ph.D., J.D., is the David Boies Professor of Law at Yale Law School in New Haven. He received his A.B. from Harvard College, his Ph.D. in the history of American civilization from Harvard University, and his J.D. from Yale Law School. Dr. Post served as a Law Clerk to Justice William J. Brennan on the U.S. Supreme Court and to David Bazelon on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. He was an associate at the law firm of Williams & Connolly. For many years he was the Alexander F. and May T. Morrison Professor of Law at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Post’s expertise includes constitutional law (with particular emphasis on the First Amendment), legal history, and jurisprudence. He has authored or co-authored more than 60 articles and edited

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? several books. Dr. Post is a Councilor of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Richard Scheines, Ph.D., is a Professor of Philosophy at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, and holds courtesy appointments in the Center for Automated Learning and Discovery and the Human–Computer Interaction Institute. He received his B.A. in history from Hobart College and joined the Carnegie Mellon faculty after receiving his Ph.D. in history and philosophy of science from the University of Pittsburgh in 1987. Dr. Scheines’ research focuses on the connections between causal structure and data, especially social science and behavioral science data. He has collaborated for more than two decades with statisticians and computer scientists on a project to characterize what can and cannot be learned about causal claims from statistical data in a variety of empirical settings, and to develop and implement algorithms for causal discovery. His research interests emphasize the problem of inferring the causal relations among latent variables, such as intelligence, which cannot be measured directly. He has applied this work to several policy areas, including estimating the effects of low-level exposure to lead on the cognitive capacities of children, and determining the effects of welfare reform on single mothers and their ability to effectively parent. Dr. Scheines currently receives support from the McDonnell Foundation for developing online courseware in causal and statistical reasoning. He has co-authored dozens of articles and three books on causal inference and causal discovery, and designed an online course in causal and statistical reasoning. Frances H. Seligson, Ph.D., R.D., is a Nutrition Consultant and Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of Nutrition at The Pennsylvania State University. She is retired as the Associate Director of Nutrition at Hershey Foods Corporation. During her tenure at Hershey Foods, she held the positions of Senior Manager of Nutrition and Food Safety, Manager of Nutrition and Food Safety, and Manager of Nutrition Affairs. She has also worked for The Procter & Gamble Company and was Assistant Professor of Nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Seligson received her undergraduate degree in dietetics from Drexel University in Philadelphia, completed a dietetic internship at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and earned a Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley. She has published extensively in the areas of nutrition and food consumption. Her professional memberships include the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and the American Dietetic Association, and she has served on the IOM Committee on Use of Dietary Reference Intakes in Nutrition Labeling. Dr. Seligson is currently a consultant on scientific issues to Hershey Foods and has represented Hershey Foods on

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? International Life Sciences Institute technical committees on dietary lipids, carbohydrates, energy, and lifestyle and weight management. She also has consulted for the International Food Information Council Committee on Dietary Sugars and previously was involved with its childhood obesity prevention initiative. Mary Story, Ph.D., R.D., is a Professor in the Division of Epidemiology and Associate Dean for Student and Academic Affairs in the School of Public Health at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. She is an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Story received a Ph.D. in human nutrition science from Florida State University. Her M.S. is in food science. Dr. Story’s research focuses on understanding factors related to eating behaviors of youth, and community-, school-, and family-based interventions for obesity prevention, healthful eating, and physical activity among children, adolescents, and families. Several projects have focused on working with low-income communities and communities of color. Her research also focuses on environmental interventions to promote healthful food choices. Dr. Story has received awards for her work with child and adolescent nutrition and obesity prevention from the American Public Health Association, American Dietetic Association, Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors, Minnesota Department of Health and Department of Pediatrics at the University of Minnesota. She is active in national professional associations and is the immediate past chair of the Food and Nutrition Section of the American Public Health Association. Dr. Story is currently on the editorial board for the Journal of Adolescent Health and the Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Ellen A. Wartella, Ph.D., is the Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost of the University of California, Riverside. She is a Distinguished Professor of Psychology. Dr. Wartella received her Ph.D. in mass communications from the University of Minnesota. She studies the role of media in child development. Dr. Wartella was a co-principal investigator on the National TV Violence Study and is currently a co-principal investigator of the Children’s Digital Media Center. She is also serving on the Kraft Food Global Health and Wellness Advisory Council, the Decade of Behavior National Advisory Committee, the Board of Trustees of Sesame Workshop, and the National Educational Advisory Board for CARU. Dr. Wartella is a member of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Research in Child Development and is the past President of the International Communication Association; she has recently been awarded the International Communication Association’s Steven Chaffee Career Productivity Award. Dr. Wartella is a member of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Jerome D. Williams, Ph.D., is the F. J. Heyne Centennial Professor in Communication in the Department of Advertising at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). He also holds a joint appointment in the Center for African and African American Studies. Prior to joining the UT faculty, he was a faculty member in the Marketing Department in Howard University’s School of Business, where he was also Director of the Center for Marketplace Diversity. Prior to his appointment at Howard, he was a member of the Pennsylvania State University Marketing Department faculty for 14 years. During that period, he had a number of visiting appointments nationally and internationally. He has also worked for General Electric Company in Energy Systems Information and for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Solar Energy Research Institute. Dr. Williams’ research interests cover several areas in the business-to-business and consumer marketing domains, with emphasis on ethnic minority marketing. He has conducted research on long-term business relationships, industrial marketing communications and promotion, and consumer behavior involving marketing communications strategies. Dr. Williams has testified in a number of court cases as an expert witness on consumer response to advertising strategies. Dr. Williams received his Ph.D. in business administration and marketing from the University of Colorado. FNB Liaison Nancy F. Krebs, M.D., R.D., is an Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Section Head of Nutrition in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. Dr. Krebs received her M.S. from the University of Maryland and her M.D. from the University of Colorado School of Medicine. Her expertise and research interests are in pediatrics and general nutrition, breast-feeding, nutrition support, and growth problems. She is a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Society for Clinical Nutrition (ASCN), American Society for Nutritional Sciences, and American Dietetic Association. She has received numerous awards for excellence in teaching and was a recipient of the ASCN’s Physician Nutrition Specialist Award. IOM Staff Rosemary Chalk is Director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families within the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and the Institute of Medicine within the National Academies. She has more than 17 years of experience directing studies on vaccines and immunization fi-

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? nance, educational finance, family violence, child abuse and neglect, and research ethics. From 2000 to 2003, Ms. Chalk was a part-time Study Director at the IOM. She also directed the child abuse/family violence research area at Child Trends, a nonprofit research center in Washington, DC, where she conducted studies on the development of child well-being indicators for the child welfare system. As part of her work at Child Trends and the National Academies, Ms. Chalk has directed a range of projects sponsored by the William T. Grant Foundation, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and various agencies within the DHHS, among others. Earlier in her career, Ms. Chalk was a consultant and writer for a broad array of science and society research projects. She has authored publications on issues related to child and family policy, science and social responsibility, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect. She was the first Program Head of the Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1976 to 1986 and is a former Section Officer for the same organization. She served as a Science Policy Analyst for the Congressional Research Service at the Library of Congress from 1972 to 1975. She has a B.A. in foreign affairs from the University of Cincinnati. Jennifer Appleton Gootman, M.A., is a Senior Program Officer in the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the IOM. She recently completed an Ian Axford Fellowship in Public Policy, working and living in New Zealand with the purpose of publishing a report on New Zealand’s national youth development strategy and related child and youth policies. Prior to the fellowship, she directed and disseminated two studies—Community Programs to Promote Youth Development and Working Families and Growing Kids—for the IOM and National Research Council’s BCYF. She was previously a Social Science Analyst for the Office of Planning and Evaluation in the DHHS. Her work there focused on child and family policy for low-income families, including welfare reform, child care, child health, youth development, and teen pregnancy prevention issues. She has directed a number of community youth programs in Los Angeles and New York City, involving young people in leadership development, job preparedness, and community service. She received her B.A. in education and fine arts from the University of Southern California and her M.A. in public policy from the New School for Social Research. Vivica I. Kraak, M.S., R.D., is a Senior Program Officer in the FNB at the IOM. In addition to staffing the congressionally mandated IOM study and subsequent report, Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance, she is also the Co-study Director for the IOM study on Progress in Prevent-

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? ing Childhood Obesity. Prior to joining the IOM in 2002, she worked as a Clinical Dietitian at Columbia–Presbyterian Medical Center and as a Public Health Nutritionist specializing in HIV disease in New York City. From 1994 to 2000, she was a Research Nutritionist in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University where she collaborated on several domestic and international food policy and community nutrition research initiatives. She has co-authored a variety of publications related to food security and community food systems, nutrition and HIV/AIDS, international food aid and food security, viewpoints about genetically engineered foods, use of dietary supplements, and the influence of commercialism on the food and nutrition-related decisions and behaviors of children and youth. She received her B.S. in nutritional sciences from Cornell University and completed a coordinated M.S. in nutrition and dietetic internship at Case Western Reserve University and the University Hospitals of Cleveland. She is a member of the American Public Health Association and the American Dietetic Association. Linda D. Meyers, Ph.D., is Director of the FNB at the IOM, and has also served as the Deputy Director and a Senior Program Officer in FNB. Prior to joining the IOM in 2001, she worked for 15 years in the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in the DHHS where she was a Senior Nutrition Advisor, Deputy Director, and Acting Director. Dr. Meyers has received a number of awards for her contributions to public health, including the Secretary’s Distinguished Service Award for Healthy People 2010 and the Surgeon General’s Medallion. Dr. Meyers has a B.A. in health and physical education from Goshen College in Indiana, an M.S. in food and nutrition from Colorado State University, and a Ph.D. in nutritional sciences from Cornell University. Leslie J. Sim is a Research Associate in the FNB at the IOM and also provides Web support for all of the FNB activities. In 2003, she received recognition within FNB as a recipient of an IOM inspirational staff award. Ms. Sim has previously worked both as a Teaching Assistant and Laboratory Assistant for an undergraduate food science laboratory class. She is also working on a military nutrition study to determine if modifications are needed in the military ration composition to prevent possible adverse health and performance consequences of consuming such rations while in short-term high-stress situations. Previously, she has worked on other military nutrition reports including Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance; High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product; Weight Management: State of the Science and Opportunities for Military Programs; Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance; and most recently Nutritional

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Needs for Short-Term, High-Stress Operations. Ms. Sim also provided research support for the IOM reports, Infant Formula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients and Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning. She received a B.S. in biology with an emphasis on food science from Virginia Tech. Shannon L. Wisham is a Research Associate in the FNB at the IOM where she staffed the congressionally mandated IOM study and subsequent report, Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. She has also worked on several National Research Council reports, including Partnerships for Reducing Landslide Risk, Fair Weather: Effective Partnerships in Weather and Climate Services, and Resolving Conflicts Arising from the Privatization of Environmental Data. She has been with the National Academies since 2001. She holds a B.A. in environmental science from LaSalle University in Philadelphia. Previously, she worked as a Researcher for Booz-Allen & Hamilton in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Region 3 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act/Superfund Records Center.

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