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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity?
(Appendix D, Table D-2). However, mean dietary fiber intakes based on CSFII 1994–1996 and 1998 were 12–13 g for girls and 14–17 g for boys (Enns et al., 2002, 2003), suggesting that most children and adolescents are not consuming recommended amounts of dietary fiber. In this same survey, with the exception of vitamin B12 and calcium, nutrient and food group consumption was better in younger children ages 2–5 years who consumed higher levels of dietary fiber, indicating a higher quality diet (Kranz et al., 2005a).
There is no DRI for added sugars13 because there was insufficient evidence to set a UL (IOM, 2002–2005). However, the suggested limit for added sugars is that they should not exceed 25 percent of total calories to ensure adequate micronutrient intakes (IOM, 2002–2005, 2005). The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars, in amounts suggested by the USDA food guidance system, MyPyramid, and the DASH Eating Plan (DHHS and USDA, 2005). The actual amount of added sugars that is consistent with these eating plans varies and depends on total calorie intake and the amount of discretionary fat14 consumed. The FGP suggested the following daily amounts of added sugars intake: 6 teaspoons for a 1,600-calorie diet, 12 teaspoons for a 2,200-calorie diet, and 18 teaspoons for a 2,800-calorie diet; these amounts are approximately 6, 9, and 10 percent of calories, respectively (USDA, 1996). A recent analysis that joined data from CSFII 1994–1996 and 1998 and from the U.S. sweetener supply and utilization information indicate that sweetener consumption varies with age (Haley et al., 2005). At an average of over 135 pounds per year, adolescent boys and girls, ages 12–19 years had the highest per capita sweetener consumption (including refined sugar and corn sweeteners) compared to younger children and adults (Haley et al., 2005). USDA dietary intake and survey data show that on average, older children ages 6–11 years consumed 21–23 teaspoons per day of added sugars in diets that provided 1,800–2,000 calories, adolescent girls ages 12–19 years consumed 23 teaspoons in an 1,800-calorie diet, and adolescent boys consumed 34 teaspoons in a 2,700–calorie diet (Enns et al., 2002, 2003). These amounts of added sugars provided approximately 20 percent of total calorie intake. Only 28 per-
Added sugars, also known as caloric sweeteners, are sugars and syrups that are added to foods at the table or during processing or preparation, which supply calories but few or no nutrients.
Discretionary fat is the amount of dietary fat remaining in a child’s or adolescent’s “energy” allowance after consuming sufficient amounts of high-nutrient foods to meet one’s energy and nutrient needs while promoting a healthy weight gain trajectory. Examples of discretionary fat include the fat in higher fat meats and dairy products, butter, shortenings, and hard margarine.