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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity?
were not reported (Kranz et al., 2004). The improvements in fruit and vegetable consumption may be marginal. Data from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) found that up to one-third of infants and toddlers ages 7–24 months did not consume a discrete serving of vegetables; fewer than 10 percent consumed dark green leafy vegetables; and consumption of potatoes and starchy vegetables consumption increased with age (Fox et al., 2004; Skinner et al., 2004b). Up to one-third of infants and toddlers in this age group did not consume a discrete serving of fruit and 46–62 percent consumed fruit juice (Fox et al., 2004; Skinner et al., 2004b).
Food Intakes Compared with the Food Guide Pyramid
Although the FGP was updated and replaced with MyPyramid in 2005, a comparison of intakes with FGP servings still provides a general picture of food consumption patterns. In CSFII 1994–1996 and 1998, less than half of children ages 6–11 years consumed the number of servings recommended by the FGP for any one food group (Enns et al., 2002; USDA, 1996). In CSFII 1994–1996 and 1998, less than half of children ages 6–11 years consumed the number of servings recommended by the FGP for any one food group (Enns et al., 2002; USDA, 1996). On average, children in this age group consumed only one serving of whole grains per day, compared to the recommended three servings per day (DHHS and USDA, 2004); 80 percent did not meet the recommended servings for vegetables or legumes; and about a quarter met the recommendation for fruit intake (Enns et al., 2002). These dietary patterns contribute to the reported low dietary fiber, potassium, and magnesium intakes. Only 29 percent of girls and 40 percent of boys ages 6–11 years consumed the recommended daily servings of dairy products, which explains the low calcium intakes in this group (Enns et al., 2002). Twelve percent of girls and 21 percent of boys consumed the recommended servings from the meat and meat alternatives group, but this may reflect methodological problems with assessing the meat content of meals such as casseroles in which overall protein intake is adequate (Enns et al., 2002). Low intakes of nuts, dark green leafy vegetables, and vegetable oils account for children’s low vitamin E intakes. While overall reported energy intakes were below the REA, children ages 6–11 years had intakes of discretionary fat and added sugars that were higher than levels consistent with the healthy eating pattern suggested by the FGP. These food intake patterns reveal that children are not achieving optimal diet quality and nutrient density.
Similar proportions of adolescents (ages 12–19 years) as younger children consumed the recommended servings of whole grains, vegetables, and legumes, and had intakes of discretionary fat and added sugars that exceeded the FGP healthy eating pattern (Enns et al., 2003). Fewer adoles-