Appendix K
Biographical Sketches

Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance, Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvements Programs* and the Performance Measures Subcommittee



Steven A. Schroeder, M.D., Chair—Main Committee,* is distinguished professor of health and health care, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he also heads the Smoking Cessation Leadership Center. The Center, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, works with leaders of American health professional organizations and health care institutions to increase the rate at which patients who smoke are offered help to quit. Between 1990 and 2002 he was president and Chief Executive Officer of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. During his term of office the Foundation made grant expenditures of almost $4 billion in pursuit of its mission of improving the health and health care of the American people. During those 12 1/2 years the foundation developed new programs in substance abuse prevention and treatment, care at the end of life, and health insurance expansion for children, among others. In 1999, it reorganized into health and health care groups, reflecting the twin components of its mission. Dr. Schroeder graduated from Stanford University and Harvard Medical School, and trained in internal medicine at the Harvard Medical Service of Boston City Hospital and in epidemiology as an EIS Office of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He held faculty appointments at Harvard, George Washington, and UCSF. At both George Washington and UCSF he was founding medical director of a university-

*  

Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs.



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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement Appendix K Biographical Sketches Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance, Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvements Programs* and the Performance Measures Subcommittee† Steven A. Schroeder, M.D., Chair—Main Committee,* is distinguished professor of health and health care, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he also heads the Smoking Cessation Leadership Center. The Center, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, works with leaders of American health professional organizations and health care institutions to increase the rate at which patients who smoke are offered help to quit. Between 1990 and 2002 he was president and Chief Executive Officer of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. During his term of office the Foundation made grant expenditures of almost $4 billion in pursuit of its mission of improving the health and health care of the American people. During those 12 1/2 years the foundation developed new programs in substance abuse prevention and treatment, care at the end of life, and health insurance expansion for children, among others. In 1999, it reorganized into health and health care groups, reflecting the twin components of its mission. Dr. Schroeder graduated from Stanford University and Harvard Medical School, and trained in internal medicine at the Harvard Medical Service of Boston City Hospital and in epidemiology as an EIS Office of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He held faculty appointments at Harvard, George Washington, and UCSF. At both George Washington and UCSF he was founding medical director of a university- *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement sponsored HMO, and at UCSF he founded its division of general internal medicine. He has published extensively in the fields of clinical medicine, health care financing and organization, prevention, public health, and the work force, with over 260 publications. He currently serves as chairman of the American Legacy Foundation and of the International Review Committee of the Ben Gurion School of Medicine, is a member of the editorial board of the New England Journal of Medicine, the Harvard Overseers, and a director of the James Irvine Foundation, the Save Ellis Island Foundation, and the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science. Dr. Schroeder is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). He has six honorary doctoral degrees and numerous awards. Bobbie Berkowitz, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N.,* is the alumni endowed professor of nursing at the University of Washington (UW) School of Nursing and adjunct professor in the School of Public Health and Community Medicine. She directs the “Turning Point” initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Center for the Advancement of Health Disparities Research funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research. She is a member of the board of trustees for Group Health Cooperative, a fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). She served as co-chair of the IOM Committee Using Performance Monitoring to Improve Community Health and as vice-chair of the IOM/Transportation Research Board Committee on Physical Activity, Health, Transportation, and Land Use. She holds a Ph.D. in Nursing Science from Case Western Reserve University. Donald M. Berwick, M.D., M.P.P., Co-chair PM Subcommittee,* † is president and CEO of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), a not-for-profit organization helping to accelerate the improvement of health care throughout the world. He is clinical professor of pediatrics and health care policy at the Harvard Medical School and professor of health policy and management at the Harvard School of Public Health. He is also a pediatrician, an associate in pediatrics at Boston’s Children’s Hospital, and a consultant in pediatrics at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Berwick has published over 110 scientific articles in numerous professional journals on subjects relating to health care policy, decision analysis, technology assessment, and health care quality management. Dr. Berwick serves on the National Advisory Council of the Agency for Healthcare Research and *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs. †   Member of the Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement Quality (AHRQ), the IOM’s Governing Council and the IOM’s Board on Global Health. He is also a member of several editorial boards, including that of the Journal of the American Medical Association. A summa cum laude graduate of Harvard College, Dr. Berwick holds a master of public policy degree from the John F. Kennedy School of Government and an M.D. cum laude from the Harvard Medical School. Bruce E. Bradley, M.B.A.,* is director of Health Plan Strategy and Public Policy, Health Care Initiatives, for General Motors Corporation in Pontiac, Michigan. He is responsible for health care-related strategy and public policy with a focus on quality measurement and improvement, consumer engagement and cost effectiveness. General Motors provides health care coverage for over 1.1 million employees, retirees and their dependents with an annual expense of $5.2 billion. Mr. Bradley joined General Motors in June 1996 after five years as corporate manager of Managed Care for GTE Corporation. In addition to his health care management experience at GTE, he spent nearly 20 years in health plan and health maintenance organization’s (HMO) management. From 1972 to 1980 he was executive director of the Matthew Thornton Health Plan, Nashua, New Hampshire. From 1980 to 1990 he was president and CEO of the Rhode Island Group Health Association in Providence, Rhode Island, a staff model HMO. He was co-founder of the HMO Group (now the Alliance of Community Health Plans), a national corporation of 15 non-profit, independent group practice HMOs, and the HMO Group Insurance Co., Ltd. Mr. Bradley has gained recognition for his work in achieving health plan quality improvement and for his efforts in developing the Health Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measurements and processes. He is a board member of the National Quality Forum, past member of the board of the Foundation for Accountability, board member of the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, a past board member of the Academy for Health Services Research and Policy, and a founding member and past chair of the Leapfrog Group board. A native of Pelham, New York, Mr. Bradley holds a bachelor’s degree in psychology from Yale University (1967) and master’s degree in business and health care administration from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania (1972). Janet M. Corrigan, Ph.D.,* is president and CEO of the National Committee for Quality Health Care (NCQHC), a nonprofit, nonpartisan education and research institute. Prior to joining NCQHC in June 2005, she was senior board director at the IOM, where she was responsible for the Board on *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement Health Care Services portfolio of initiatives on quality and safety, health services organization and financing, and health insurance issues. She provided leadership for IOM’s Quality Chasm Series which produced ten reports during her tenure including: To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System and Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Prior to joining IOM in 1998, Dr. Corrigan was the executive director of the President’s Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry. Dr. Corrigan serves on the boards of the Baldrige Board of Overseers and the National Center for Healthcare Leadership. She received both her doctorate in health services research and master of industrial engineering degrees from the University of Michigan, and master’s degrees in business administration and community health from the University of Rochester. Karen Davis, Ph.D.,* is president of the Commonwealth Fund, a national philanthropy engaged in independent research on health and social issues. A nationally recognized economist, has had a distinguished career in public policy and research. She served as deputy assistant secretary for health policy in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services from 1977-1980, and holds the distinction of being the first woman to head a U.S. Public Health Service agency. Prior to her government career, Dr. Davis was a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., a visiting scholar at Harvard University, and an assistant professor of economics at Rice University. She was chair of health policy and management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health from 1981-1992. She also serves on the board of Geisinger Health System. She is the recipient of the 2000 Baxter-Allegiance Foundation Prize for Health Services Research and the 2006 Academy Health Distinguished Investigator Award. She is a former president of Academy Health. Dr. Davis received her doctorate in economics from Rice University, and was awarded an honorary doctorate in humane letters from Johns Hopkins University in 2001. Nancy-Ann Min DeParle, J.D.,* is a senior advisor to JPMorgan Partners, LLC, and adjunct professor of health care systems at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. From 1997 to 2000, she served as administrator of the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), which is now the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Before joining HCFA, Ms. DeParle was associate director for health and personnel at the White House Office of Management and Budget. From 1987 to 1989 she *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement served as the Tennessee Commissioner of Human Services. She has also worked as a lawyer in private practice in Nashville, Tennessee, and Washington, DC. She is a member of the Medicare Payment Advisory Committee, a trustee of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and a board member of Cerner Corporation, DaVita Guidant Corporation, Triad Hospitals, and the National Quality Forum. Ms. DeParle received a B.A. degree from the University of Tennessee; B.A. and M.A. degrees from Oxford University, where she was a Rhodes Scholar; and a J.D. degree from Harvard Law School. Elliott S. Fisher, M.D., M.P.H., Co-chair PM Subcommittee,* † is professor of medicine and community and family medicine, where he is the director of the Institute for the Evaluation of Medical Practice at the Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences, Hanover, NH, and senior associate of the VA Outcomes Group, Veterans Administration Medical Center, White River Junction, VT Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences. He is a general internist and former Robert Wood Johnson clinical scholar who has broad expertise in the use of administrative databases and survey research methods in health systems evaluation. His research has focused on exploring the causes and consequences of variations in clinical practice and health care spending across U.S. regions and among health care providers. Richard G. Frank, Ph.D.,* is the Margaret T. Morris Professor of Health Economics in the Department of Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical School. He is also a research associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research. Dr. Frank is a member of the IOM. He advises several state mental health and substance abuse agencies on issues related to managed care and financing of care. He also serves as co-editor for the Journal of Health Economics. Dr. Frank was awarded the Georgescu-Roegen prize from the Southern Economic Association for his collaborative work on drug pricing, the Carl A. Taube Award from the American Public Health Association for outstanding contributions to mental health services and economics research, and the Emily Mumford Medal from Columbia University’s Department of Psychiatry. In 2002 Dr. Frank received the John Eisenberg Mentorship Award from National Research Service Awards. Patricia A. Gabow, M.D.,† is the CEO and medical director of Denver Health and Hospital Authority, one of the nation’s most efficient, highly regarded, extensive and integrated health care systems that includes the Denver Health Medical Center, a regional Level I trauma center, the 911 *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs. †   Member of the Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement system, a system of family health centers, school-based clinics, Denver Public Health, the Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, a correctional health care program, the Rocky Mountain Center for Medical Response to Terrorism, and more. She has been nationally recognized for her work to increase access to basic health care for all Coloradoans, especially the underserved, most of whom are women and children. In seeking to improve sustainability of the mission, Dr. Gabow led the effort to convert the hospital from part of the city to an independent governmental authority. She joined the staff in 1973 as chief of the Renal Division. During her tenure in that role and as director of medical services, she became internationally known for her scientific work in polycystic kidney disease. Her current research relates to health services for the underserved. Author of over 150 articles and book chapters, Dr. Gabow is also professor of medicine in the Division of Renal Disease at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. She received her medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, trained in internal medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and Harbor General Hospital in Torrance, California and received further training in nephrology at San Francisco General Hospital and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. She has been awarded the Florence Rena Sabin Award for medical education and public health advocacy and elected to the Colorado Women’s Hall of Fame for her commitment to Colorado’s health care safety net. She was named one of the top 25 Women in Health Care by Modern Health Care Magazine in 2005. Robert S. Galvin, M.D.,* is the director of Global Health Care for General Electric (GE). He is in charge of the design and performance of GE’s health programs, totaling over $3 billion annually, and oversees the 1 million patient encounters that take place in GE’s 220 medical clinics in over 20 countries. Drawing on his clinical expertise and training in Six Sigma, Dr. Galvin has been an advocate and leader in extending the benefits of this methodology to health care. He has focused on issues of market-based health policy and financing, with a special interest in promoting transparency and reforming the payment system. He is a past member of the Strategic Framework Board of the National Quality Forum and is currently on the board of the National Committee for Quality Assurance. He is a co-founder of the Leapfrog Group, founder of Bridges to Excellence, and member of the Advisory Group of the Council on Health Care Economics and Policy. Dr. Galvin is widely published on issues affecting the purchaser side of health care. He is professor adjunct of medicine at Yale, where he directs the seminar series *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement on the private sector for the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars fellowship. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians. Lillee Smith Gelinas, R.N., M.S.N.,† is a member of Veterans Health Administration’s (VHA’s) clinical performance leadership team, where she supports VHA’s efforts to help members improve their clinical and economic performance. She works extensively with VHA’s 2,400 member health care organizations and 18 local offices to help hospitals measure and improve clinical quality. Ms. Gelinas is a national champion for VHA’s well-recognized efforts to help members achieve clinical excellence. In addition, she supports programs, products, and services which impact VHA’s nurses and nursing leaders through clinical improvement, education, networking and research activities—key responsibilities since 1986. She has published findings for VHA Inc. on the changing role of nursing leaders since 1993 and is a nationally recognized speaker on clinical, health care management and nursing issues. Ms. Gelinas attended Louisiana State University, earned her bachelor’s degree in nursing from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette and a master’s degree in nursing, with honors, from the University of Pennsylvania where she also studied at the Wharton School of Business. For the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, she serves as a member of the National Nursing Council as well as the Hospital Standards Advisory Group and has been a John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality Award judge for two years. She co-chaired the 2003 National Quality Forum project to establish national voluntary consensus measures for nursing sensitive care. For the IOM, she served on the Crossing the Quality Chasm 2004 Summit committee and chaired the agenda subgroup. She was inducted as a fellow in the American Academy of Nursing in November 2005. In addition, she is a member of the Board of Directors for Exempla Healthcare, Denver, Colorado. David H. Gustafson, Ph.D.,* is a research professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where he directs the Center of Excellence in Cancer Communications (designated by the National Cancer Institute) and the Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the federal government’s Center for Substance Abuse Treatment). His research focuses on the use of systems engineering methods and models in individual and organizational change. Much of his research centers on the development and evaluation of health *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs. †   Member of the Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement systems to support people facing serious health problems such as cancer. His randomized controlled trials and field tests help understand acceptance, use and impact of eHealth on quality of life, behavior change and health services utilization. His research also contributes to organizational improvement with a particular attention to models that predict and explain organizational change. Dr. Gustafson is a fellow of the Association for Health Services Research and of the American Medical Informatics Association, a fellow and past vice-chair of the board of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. He also chaired the recently completed Federal Science Panel on Interactive Communications in Health and is chair of the eHealth Institute. He is a member of the University of Wisconsin Athletic Board. Margarita P. Hurtado, Ph.D., M.H.S., M.A.,† is principal research scientist at the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and a health services researcher with expertise in quality of care measurement and primary care. On CAHPS II, funded by AHRQ and CMS, she is task leader for quality improvement (QI), task leader for cultural comparability, and a member of the instrumentation and core teams for the development of the Ambulatory CAHPS survey. Her CAHPS II work focuses on consumer survey development, survey translation and cultural adaptation, QI based on patient reports of care, and cross-cultural issues related to measurement and reporting. She is also task leader on a project to develop a tool kit of classroom- and clinic-based interventions to promote child health through health centers located in elementary schools. Previously, she was PI on a project with Center for Naval Analysis (CNA) to support the CMS Doctor’s Office Quality project by developing composite measures of quality of chronic disease care taking into account clinical aspects and patient reports of care. She was also project director for the evaluation of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s “Your Heart, Your Health Program” that examined the effectiveness of lay health educators in promoting behavior change among Latinos. She was senior advisor on an Office of Minority Health project to promote patient-centered care through the development of Cultural Competency Curriculum Modules for Family Physicians. Before joining AIR, Dr. Hurtado was with the IOM where she was study director for AHRQ’s National Healthcare Quality Report. Previous to that, she worked as a consultant for the Pan American Health Organization on primary care and health system reform and with the Ministry of Health in Colombia. She was the recipient of a National Research Service Award from National Institutes of Health, a primary care fellow at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and a recipient of the Marilyn Bergner Award for Health Services Research and †   Member of the Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement the John Hume Award for her dissertation research. She is an associate at the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health and a member of the editorial board of the International Journal for Quality in Health Care. She served on the AHRQ Special Emphasis Panel on Practice-Based Research Networks and the Translation of Research into Practice in July 2004. Dr. Hurtado holds a Ph.D. in Health Services Research, a Master in Health Sciences, and a Master of Arts in International Relations, all from the Johns Hopkins University. George J. Isham, M.D.,† is medical director and chief health officer for HealthPartners, a large health plan in Minnesota, representing nearly 630,000 members. He is responsible for quality improvement and utilization management, health professional education, and research. Before his current position, Dr. Isham was medical director of MedCenters Health Plan in Minneapolis. In the late 1980s, he was executive director of University Health Care, an organization affiliated with the University of Wisconsin, Madison. His practice experience as a primary care physician included eight years at the Freeport Clinic in Freeport, Illinois, and three and half years as clinical assistant professor in medicine at the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Isham was chair of the IOM committee that produced the report, Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality. Dr. Isham received his medical degree from the University of Illinois and served his internship and residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics in Madison. He also has a Master of Science in Preventive Medicine/Administrative Medicine from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Brent C. James, M.D., M. Stat,† is vice president for medical research and executive director of Intermountain Health Care’s (IHC) Institute for Health Care Delivery Research. IHC is an integrated system of 21 hospitals, more than 80 clinics, a 400+ member physician group, and an HMO/PPO insurance plan jointly responsible for more than 1,000,000 covered lives. IHC is widely recognized for its work in clinical quality improvement and electronic clinical decision support systems. Dr. James also leads IHC’s clinical improvement efforts. Dr. James received an undergraduate degree in computer science, a Master of Statistics degree, and an M.D. degree from the University of Utah, with subsequent training in general surgery from that institution. An interest in cancer led him to spend several years with the American College of Surgeons, where he helped support the Commission on Cancer and de- †   Member of the Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement signed and staffed the College’s first in-house main frame computer system. He later served as a biostatistician in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, while an assistant professor in the Department of Biostatistics at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. James presently holds joint adjunct professorships in the University of Utah School of Medicine’s Department of Family and Preventive Medicine and the Department of Medical Informatics. He is a visiting lecturer in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health, and an adjunct professor at Tulane University. He served on the IOM’s National Roundtable on Healthcare Quality and its committee on Quality of Healthcare in America. He is a past member of the National Quality Forum’s Strategic Framework Board, and sits on the board of trustees of the National Patient Safety Foundation. He serves on a number of other boards for not-for-profit health care institutions with missions directed at measuring and improving the quality and availability of health care services. Mary Anne Koda-Kimble, Pharm.D.,* is dean of the School of Pharmacy at the UCSF, where she teaches and has cared for patients at the UCSF Diabetes Center. She holds the Thomas J. Long Endowed Professorship in Chain Pharmacy Practice and has previously served as chairwoman of the Department of Clinical Pharmacy. Dr. Koda-Kimble received her Pharm.D. from UCSF and joined its faculty in 1970, where she was involved in developing an innovative clinical pharmacy curriculum. Dr. Koda-Kimble is a member of the United States Pharmacopoeia board of trustees and is vice chair of the Accreditation Council of Pharmaceutical Education Board of Directors. She was a past president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy and has served on the California State Board of Pharmacy, the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee, and many other boards and task forces of national professional associations. Dr. Koda-Kimble is frequently invited to address national and international groups and has many publications, the best known of which is Applied Therapeutics, a text widely used by health professional students and practitioners throughout the world. Arthur A. Levin, M.P.H.,† is director of the Center for Medical Consumers, a New York City–based nonprofit organization committed to informed consumer and patient health care decision-making, patient safety, evidence-based, high-quality medicine and health care system transparency. The *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs. †   Member of the Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement Center publishes a monthly newsletter HealthFacts, which offers a critique of medical and health practices based on the available scientific evidence and expert opinion. Mr. Levin was a member of the IOM’s Committee on the Quality of Health Care that published the To Err Is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm reports. He also served as a member of the IOM committee that evaluated the federal quality effort and made recommendations to Congress in its report Leadership by Example. Mr. Levin spent more than 10 years as a public member of an Institution Review Board at a New York State hospital and research center aligned with a large academic medical center. He also was a member of a Department of Health task force that reviewed special concerns about research and healthy normal volunteers. He is currently a member of the FDA Consumer Nominating Workgroup that recommends consumer representatives for FDA Advisory Committees and of the New York State Department of Health statewide workgroup that has redesigned the state’s hospital incident reporting and adverse event tracking system known as NYPORTS. Mr. Levin has also served as a guest expert on risk management at several FDA Drug Advisory Committee meetings and currently serves as the consumer member on the FDA’s Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee (DSaRM). Mr. Levin is a member of the Committee on Performance Measures of the National Committee for Quality Assurance and of the National Quality Forum’s Standardizing Cardiac Surgery Measures Steering Committee. He earned his Master of Public Health degree from Columbia University School of Public Health and his Bachelor of Arts degree in philosophy from Reed College. Glen P. Mays, Ph.D., M.P.H.,† recently joined the faculty of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) College of Public Health after four years at Mathematica Policy Research as a senior health researcher. He currently serves as an associate professor of health policy and director of research for the college’s department of health policy and management. Dr. Mays’ research focuses on strategies for organizing and financing public health services, health insurance, and medical care services for underserved populations. Much of his work has explored the institutional and economic forces that shape public health and medical care systems and their interface. He led a series of CDC-supported studies examining how public health services are organized, financed, and delivered across local communities, and what factors influence the performance of essential public health services. This work has included the development of instruments and analytic techniques used to measure public health system performance in improving †   Member of the Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement tee on quality for the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation. Dr. McGlynn serves on the editorial boards for Health Services Research and the Milbank Quarterly and is a reviewer for many leading journals. Dr. McGlynn received her Ph.D. in public policy analysis in 1988 from the RAND Graduate School. Arnold Milstein, M.D.,† is the medical director of the Pacific Business Group on Health (PBGH) and the chief physician at Mercer Human Resource Consulting. PBGH is the largest health care purchasers coalition in the United States. Dr. Milstein’s work and publications focus on health care purchasing strategy, clinical performance measurement, and the psychology of clinical performance improvement. He co-founded both the Leapfrog Group and the Consumer-Purchaser Disclosure Project and heads performance measurement activities for both initiatives. He also serves as the private sector representative on the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. Educated at Harvard (B.A. Economics), Tufts (Medical Degree), and University of California, Berkeley (M.P.H. Health Services Evaluation and Planning), he is an associate clinical professor at University of California, San Francisco. Alan R. Nelson, M.D.,* is an internist-endocrinologist who was in private practice in Salt Lake City, Utah, until becoming chief executive officer of the American Society of Internal Medicine (ASIM) in 1992. Following the merger of ASIM with the American College of Physicians (ACP) in 1998, Dr. Nelson headed the Washington Office of ACP-ASIM until his semi-retirement in January 2000, and currently serves as special advisor to the executive vice-presicent/CEO of the College. He was president of the American Medical Association and currently serves as a member of the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, which advises congress on Medicare issues. A member of the IOM, he was chair of the IOM Committee on Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Health Care and is a co-editor of the study report, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Dr. Nelson attended Utah State University, and received his M.D. degree from Northwestern University in 1958. Sharon-Lise Normand, Ph.D.,† is professor of health care policy (biostatistics) in the Department of Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical School and professor in the Department of Biostatistics at the Harvard School of *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs. †   Member of Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement Public Health. Her research focuses on the development of statistical methods for health services and outcomes research, primarily using Bayesian approaches to problem solving, including methods for causal inference, provider profiling, item response theory analyses, meta-analyses, and evaluation of medical devices in randomized and nonrandomized settings. She serves on several task forces for the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, is a member of the FDA Circulatory System Devices Advisory Panel, the Massachusetts Cardiac Care Quality Advisory Commission, and is Director of Mass-DAC, a data coordinating center that monitors the quality of cardiac surgeries and coronary interventions in Massachusetts’ acute care hospitals. Dr. Normand earned her Ph.D. in biostatistics from the University of Toronto, and holds M.S. and B.S. degrees in statistics. She is a fellow of the American Statistical Association as well as a fellow of the American College of Cardiology. Barbara R. Paul, M.D.,† is senior vice president and chief medical officer of Beverly Enterprises, a leading provider of elder care headquartered in Fort Smith, Arkansas. She was previously director of the Quality Measurement and Health Assessment Group for CMS in Baltimore, Maryland. While at CMS, she led the launch of Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy G. Thompson’s Nursing Home Quality Initiative and Home Health Quality Initiative, and played a key role in the agency’s overall quality measurement and public reporting work. She represented the agency on the boards of the National Quality Forum and the Leapfrog Group. Dr. Paul is an internist who was in full-time practice in Napa, California, from 1987 to 1999, in a small group practice affiliated with Queen of the Valley Hospital, and with Kaiser Permanente. She served as director of women’s health services and chairperson of the Department of Medicine at Queen of the Valley Hospital, and was active with the California Medical Association where she chaired their Council on Ethical Affairs and served on their board of trustees. Dr. Paul earned a B.S. degree in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and her M.D. from Stanford University School of Medicine. Norman C. Payson, M.D.,* retired as chairman and CEO of Oxford Health Plans, Inc., in November of 2002. Oxford Health Plans is a prominent greater New York health plan with 1.5 million members. Dr. Payson was recruited to the CEO position in 1998 after Oxford experienced severe *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs. †   Member of Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement operational and financial challenges and then led its successful turnaround. Prior to joining Oxford, Dr. Payson was co-founder and CEO of Healthsource, Inc., from its inception in 1985 until its sale to CIGNA Corporation in 1997. During his tenure, Healthsource grew to 3 million members in 15 states. Dr. Payson is a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and received his M.D. at Dartmouth Medical School. William A. Peck, M.D.,* became the Alan A. and Edith L. Wolf Distinguished Professor of Medicine and director of the Washington University Center for Health Policy in 2003. From 1989 to 2003 he served as dean of Washington University School of Medicine and vice chancellor for medical affairs (executive vice chancellor from 1993-2003), and president of the Washington University Medical Center. Dr. Peck was awareded an honorary Doctor of Science from the University of Rochester in 2000. His academic activities include original investigations in bone and mineral metabolism, extensive clinical teaching and patient care experience. Major scientific contributions include the first method for studying directly the structure, function and growth of bone cells, demonstration of mechanisms whereby hormones regulate bone cell function, and examination of causes of osteoporosis. Dr. Peck served as founding president of the National Osteoporosis Foundation. He serves on the boards of Allied Health Care Products, Angelica Corporation, TIAA-CREF Trust Company, Research!America (vice chair) and a trustee of the University of Rochester. Dr. Peck is past chairman of the American Association of Medical Colleges. Dr. Peck has served on the editorial boards of major pharmaceutical companies. Neil R. Powe, M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A.,* is professor of medicine, professor of health policy and management and professor of epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He also is director of the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, an interdisciplinary research and training center at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions focused on population-based and health services research. Dr. Powe’s research has involved clinical epidemiology, technology assessment, patient outcomes research and health services research in many areas of medicine. He has also studied physician decision making and other determinants of use of medical practices including payers’ decisions about insurance coverage for new medical technologies, the effect of financial incentives on the use of technology, efficiency and outcomes in for-profit versus non-profit health *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement care institutions, and the relation between hospital volume, technology and outcomes. He has extensive experience in developing and measuring outcomes and quality in chronic kidney disease and is author of more than 230 articles. Dr. Powe received his M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School, M.P.H. degree from Harvard School of Public Health, and M.B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania. He completed his residency at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania where he was also a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar and fellow in the Division of General Internal Medicine. Dr. Powe is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, and American Society of Epidemiology. Christopher Queram, M.A.,* has been CEO of the Employer Health Care Alliance Cooperative (The Alliance) of Madison, WI, since 1993. The Alliance is a health care purchasing cooperative owned by more than 160 member companies that contracts with providers, collects and reports cost and utilization data, conducts consumer education and advocacy initiatives, and designs employer quality initiatives and reports. In addition to his responsibilities at The Alliance, Mr. Queram is a member of the board of the Leapfrog Group and currently serves as treasurer. He is a member and vice chair of the Wisconsin Board on Health Information. In addition, he is a member of the “Principals” for the American Hospital Association/CMS National Voluntary Hospital Reporting Initiative, a board member of the Wisconsin Collaborative for Healthcare Quality, and a member of the steering committee for the Wisconsin Hospital Association’s CheckPoint quality reporting initiative. He served as a member of the Planning Committee for the National Quality Forum and continues as chair of the Purchaser Council and board member of the Forum. He also served as a member of the IOM’s Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance and President Clinton’s Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry. Prior to his current position, Mr. Queram was a hospital executive in Madison and Milwaukee, WI. Mr. Queram holds a Master of Arts degree in health services administration from the University of Wisconsin, Madison and is a fellow in the American College of Healthcare Executives. Robert D. Reischauer, Ph.D.,* is the president of the Urban Institute, a nonprofit, nonpartisan policy research and education organization that examines the social, economic, and governance problems facing the nation. He served as the director of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) between 1989 and 1995 and was CBO’s assistant director for human resources and deputy *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement director of CBO during the 1977 to 1981 period. Dr. Reischauer has been a senior fellow in the Economic Studies Program of the Brookings Institution (1986 to 1989 and 1995 to 2000) and the senior vice president of the Urban Institute (1981 to 1986). He is an economist with an undergraduate degree from Harvard and a Ph.D. in economics and Masters in International Affairs from Columbia University. Dr. Reischauer is a member of the Harvard Corporation and serves on the boards of several educational and nonprofit organizations. He is vice-chair of the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission and served as chair of the National Academy of Social Insurance’s project “Restructuring Medicare for the Long Term” from 1995 through 2004. William C. Richardson, Ph.D.,* is president and CEO of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation of Battle Creek, Michigan. Before joining the foundation in August 1995, Dr. Richardson was president of the Johns Hopkins University, a position he had held since 1990. In addition, Dr. Richardson was professor of health policy and management at the university. He has been appointed professor and president emeritus. Dr. Richardson is a member of the IOM of the National Academies and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the American Public Health Association. Dr. Richardson has served on the boards of the Council of Michigan Foundations and the Council on Foundations (trustee and chairman). He also serves on the board of directors of the Kellogg Company, CSX Corporation, and the Bank of New York. Dr. Richardson is a graduate of Trinity College and the University of Chicago. Cheryl M. Scott, M.H.A.,* is currently the president emerita for Group Health Cooperative (GHC). From 1997-2004, she was its president and CEO. GHC is one of the the nation’s largest consumer-governed, nonprofit health care systems. Prior to assuming her position in 1997, Scott served as GHC’s executive vice president/chief operating officer. Ms. Scott is a clinical professor in the Department of Health Services at the University of Washington. At the national level, Ms. Scott served on the board of the Alliance of Community Plans (trustee and chair) and the board of America’s Health Insurance Plans. She currently serves as the board chair for the Health Technology Center and is a trustee for the Washington State Life Sciences Discovery Fund. Ms. Scott received a bachelor’s degree in communications and a master’s degree in health administration from the University of Washington. *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement Stephen M. Shortell, Ph.D., M.P.H.,* is a prominent researcher in health policy and organization behavior at the University of California, Berkeley and is dean of the School of Public Health. Dr. Shortell is known as a leading academic voice advocating reform of the nation’s health system. His research has helped establish determinants of health outcomes and quality of care for health care organizations. As the Blue Cross of California Distinguished Professor of Health Policy and Management, Shortell holds a joint appointment at UC Berkeley’s School of Public Health and the Haas School of Business. He also is affiliated with UC Berkeley’s Department of Sociology and UC San Francisco’s Institute for Health Policy Studies. Dr. Shortell is an elected member of the IOM of the National Academies. Dr. Shortell has received the Baxter-Allegiance Prize, considered the highest honor worldwide in the field of health services research. He also has received the Distinguished Investigator Award from the Association for Health Services Research and the Gold Medal award from the American College of Healthcare Executives for his contributions to the field. He serves on the boards of the Health Research and Educational Trust (HRET) and the National Center for Healthcare Leadership (NCHL). Dr. Shortell received his bachelor’s degree from the University of Notre Dame, his master’s degree in public health from UCLA and his Ph.D. in behavioral science from the University of Chicago. Before coming to UC Berkeley in 1998, Shortell held teaching and research positions at Northwestern University, the University of Washington, and the University of Chicago. Samuel O. Thier, M.D.,* † is professor of medicine and professor of health care policy at Harvard Medical School. He was president and CEO of Partners HealthCare System from 1996-2002. From 1994-1997 he was president of the Massachusetts General Hospital, and was Brandeis University’s president during the previous three years. He served six years as president of the IOM, the National Academies and eleven years as chairman of the Department of Internal Medicine at Yale University School of Medicine, where he was sterling professor. Dr. Thier is an authority on internal medicine and kidney disease and is also known for his expertise in national health policy, medical education and biomedical research. Born in New York, he attended Cornell University and received his medical degree from the State University of New York at Syracuse in 1960. He served on the medical staff of Massachusetts General Hospital, as an intern, resident, chief resident in medicine and chief of the renal unit, and held a faculty appointment at Harvard. Prior to joining the faculty of Yale in 1975, he was professor and *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs. †   Member of Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement vice chairman of the Department of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He has received several honorary degrees and the UC Medal of the University of California, San Francisco. He has served as president of the American Federation of Clinical Research and chairman of the American Board of Internal Medicine and is a master of the American College of Physicians, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the American Philosophical Society. Dr. Thier is a director of Charles River Laboratories, Inc., the Commonwealth Fund (Chairman), Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, and Merck & Co., Inc., and a member of the Board of Overseers of TIAA-CREF and the Board of Overseers of Cornell University Medical College. Paul J. Wallace, M.D.,† is executive director of Kaiser Permanente Care Management Institute (CMI), Oakland, California, and serves on Kaiser Permanente’s Interregional New Technologies, Guidelines, Research and Diversity committees. Dr. Wallace is a member of the National Advisory Council for AHRQ, a member of the Committee on Performance Measurement for the National Committee for Quality Assurance, and a board member for the Disease Management Association of America. Previously, he was the director for the Clinical Practice Guidelines Program at the Northwest Region Permanente Medical Group, Portland, Oregon, and clinical oncology studies investigator at the Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region. Dr. Wallace is board certified in internal medicine and hematology, and practiced for several years within the Northwest Permanente Medical Group. He combines past experiences in academic medicine and clinical medical oncology and hematology practice with work in quality improvement, especially in the areas of guideline development and evaluation of emerging medical technologies. He has conducted extensive research in these areas and published several articles. He participates in both national and community professional associations. A graduate of Drake University, Dr. Wallace holds an M.D. from the College of Medicine, University of Iowa. Gail R. Wilensky, Ph.D.,* is a senior fellow at Project HOPE, an international health education foundation, where she analyzes and develops policies relating to health reform and to ongoing changes in the medical marketplace. Dr. Wilensky testifies frequently before Congressional committees, acts as an advisor to members of Congress and other elected officials, and speaks nationally and internationally before professional, business and con- *   Member of the Main Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs. †   Member of Performance Measures Subcommittee.

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement sumer groups. From 2001 to 2003, she co-chaired the President’s Task Force to Improve Health Care Delivery for Our Nation’s Veterans, which covered health care for both veterans and military retirees. From 1997 to 2001, she chaired the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, which advises Congress on payment and other issues relating to Medicare, and from 1995 to 1997, she chaired the Physician Payment Review Commission. Previously, she served as deputy assistant to President (GHW) Bush for policy development, advising him on health and welfare issues. Prior to that, she was administrator of the HCFA, overseeing the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Dr. Wilensky is an elected member of the IOM and its Governing Council, and serves as a trustee of the Combined Benefits Fund of the United Mineworkers of America, the American Heart Association, and is on the Advisory Board of the National Institute of Health Care Management. She is an advisor to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and The Commonwealth Fund, immediate past chair of the Board of Directors of Academy Health, and is a director on several corporate boards. Dr. Wilensky received a bachelor’s degree in psychology and a Ph.D. in economics at the University of Michigan. Institute of Medicine Staff Biographies Rosemary A. Chalk, is the director of Board on Children, Youth and Families (BCYF) and also serves as the director of the Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment, and Performance Improvement Programs at the IOM. She has been a senior staff member of the IOM and the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Academies for almost 19 years, directing studies on vaccines and immunization finance, educational finance, family violence, child abuse and neglect, and research ethics. She took on the role of BCYF director in September 2003 and began directing the Redesigning Health Insurance project in April 2005. For three years (2000 to 2003), Ms. Chalk was a half-time study director at the IOM and also directed the child abuse/family violence research area at Child Trends, a nonprofit research center in Washington, D.C., where she conducted studies on the development of child well-being indicators for the child welfare system. Over the past decade, Ms. Chalk has directed a range of projects sponsored by the William T. Grant Foundation, the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and various agencies within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Earlier in her career, Ms. Chalk was a consultant and writer for a broad array of science and society research projects. She has authored publications on issues related to child and family policy, science and social respon-

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement sibility, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect. She was the first program head of the Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1976 to 1986 and is a former section officer for the same organization. She served as a science policy analyst for the Congressional Research Service at the Library of Congress from 1972 to 1975. She has a B.A. in foreign affairs from the University of Cincinnati. Karen Adams, Ph.D., M.T. (A.S.C.P.), was a senior program officer at the IOM in Washington, D.C. until February 2006. She was lead staff on the Performance Measures Subcommittee and the Pay for Performance Subcommittee of the IOM congressionally mandated study Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment, and Performance Improvement Programs. Her prior work at the IOM includes serving as study director of the IOM report Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality and co-study director of the report The 1st Annual Crossing the Quality Chasm Summit: A Focus on Communities. Before coming to the IOM, she held the rank of assistant professor in the Department of Medical and Research Technology, University of Maryland School of Medicine and also was the academic coordinator of the undergraduate medical technology program. She received her undergraduate degree in medical technology from Loyola College, a master’s degree in management from the College of Notre Dame, and a doctorate degree in health policy from the University of Maryland. During her doctoral studies she was awarded an internship at AHRQ where she researched over 30 years of innovations in medical informatics. She is also certified as a medical technologist by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists. Samantha M. Chao, M.P.H., is a senior health policy associate for the Board on Health Care Services of the IOM. She recently completed her master’s degree in health policy at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. In completing her studies, she interned with both the Michigan Department of Community Health and the American Heart Association to promote the study of chronic disease and disease prevention. Contessa Fincher, Ph.D., M.P.H., was a program officer with the Board on Health Care Services of the IOM from 2004 until July 2005. She is a recent graduate from the University of Alabama at Birmingham in administration-health services with a focus in outcomes research. She has a Master of Public Health from the University of Texas School of Public Health at Houston with a concentration in health services research. Her postdoctoral work was completed at Wyeth Research, in the department of Global Health Outcomes and Pharmacoeconmic Assessment. She designed cost-effectiveness

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Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement models at Wyeth as a part of her postdoctoral work in the area of cardiovascular disease. Before joining IOM, she briefly worked as a pharmaco-economist at the FDA and Abt Associates, a government and pharmaceutical consulting company. She has published articles in journals such as New England Journal of Medicine, American Journal of Cardiology, and Ethnicity & Disease. Tracy A. Harris, D.P.M., M.P.H., joined the Board on Health Care Services of the IOM in 2004 as a program officer. Her work background includes clinical experience and health policy work. Previously, she was trained in podiatric medicine and surgery and spent several years in private practice. In 1999, Dr. Harris was awarded a congressional fellowship with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She spent one year working in the U.S. Senate on many issues including elder fraud, telemedicine, national practitioners data bank, health professional shortage areas, stem cell research, and malpractice caps. While earning her master’s degree, she worked on various projects including Medicaid disease management and the uninsured. She has a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree from the Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine and a Master of Public Health degree with a concentration in health policy from the George Washington University. Dianne Miller Wolman is lead staff on a Congressionally mandated evaluation of the Quality Improvement Organization Program of Medicare, part of the IOM’s Redesigning Health Insurance Project. Prior to this she co-directed a 3-year study of the Consequences of Uninsurance, which produced a series of six reports: Insuring Health. She also directed the study that resulted in the IOM report, Medicare Laboratory Payment Policy: Now and in the Future, released in 2000. She joined the IOM Health Care Services Division in 1999 as a senior program officer. Her previous work experience in the health field has been varied and focused on finance and payment in insurance programs. She came from the General Accounting Office, where she was a senior evaluator on studies of the HCFA and its management capacity. Previously, she was a policy specialist at a national association representing nonprofit providers of long-term care services. Her earlier positions included policy analysis and management with the office of the secretary, DHHS; a peer-review organization; a governor’s task force on access to health care; and a third-party administrator for very large health plans. In addition, she was policy director for a state Medicaid rate setting commission. She has a master’s degree in government administration from Wharton Graduate School, University of Pennsylvania.

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