asked to assess current federal agency policies with regard to ARIF and to express the primary federal policy issue faced by their field.

In total, the committee received seven responses. All the respondents wrote generously about their fields and their needs. Because of the number of responses and desire for confidentiality, some responses are not included in this summary.

EXAMPLES OF ARIF

This section provides the responses from professional societies regarding current ARIF examples in their field:

Chemical Physics

“Experimental instrumentation in this price range currently reside primarily at the national laboratories (LANL, LLNL, LBL, ORNL, PNNL, BNL, FNL, ANL, INEL, SNL, etc.) and include what might be termed ‘big science,’ that is, instrumental approaches that are not possible at independent research institutions. Critical instrumentation in this price range for chemical physics research include (but are not limited to):

  • Neutron scattering techniques/spectrometers—neutron diffraction, small angle neutron scattering, quasielastic neutron scattering, neutron reflectometry.

  • Synchrotron radiation techniques/spectrometers—EUV/x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, time-resolved high-energy experiments.

  • High-field NMR spectrometers—pulsed field gradient, two-dimensional.

  • Tunneling electron microscopes—in situ capabilities with aberration correction to follow the dynamics of nanoscale systems in real time.

  • Elaborate state-of-the-art laser systems including facilities for studies of attosecond pulses.

The utility of these resources is becoming more apparent to the research community, and the need for access to them is growing. For example, synchrotron radiation sources are now oversubscribed by users [see, e.g., B. Crasemann, Synchrotron radiation in atomic physics, Can J. Phys. 76:251-272 (1998)]. High-performance computing architectures also play a major role in chemical physics research, and the availability of this type of computation resources is always very limited. At the lower end of this price range, cluster computers also play an important role. Currently, the options are either large computer systems at national supercomputing facilities or relatively small private clusters. The number of



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