able to appoint a research associate who would also teach courses; among those who held this position were Abraham Wald and Henry B. Mann. He had as graduate students Samuel S. Wilks, W. Allen Wallis, Jacob Wolfowitz, Albert Bowker, and Meyer A. Girshick, who in turn set up similar programs at Princeton, Stanford, Chicago, and Cornell.

With the aid of the research associates the statistics program was indeed first-rate; it had a separate listing in the catalogue but there was no department and no degree associated with it. His intellectual leadership, kindness, and generosity to his students were legendary among them, and his house in Mountain Lakes, New Jersey, witnessed his and his wife’s monthly open houses for them and other statisticians. He had none of the prejudices then still common; refugees from Europe and students from India could count on his warm support and very practical help.

His human and liberty-loving sympathies made him a bitter opponent of Hitler and an early advocate of intervention in World War II. When we entered the war, he persuaded the U.S. military to create a statistical research group at Columbia, of which he was made director. The group worked on many problems of quality control for munitions and other statistical issues relevant to the war effort.

The Columbia administration resisted his efforts to create an independent department of statistics with permanent faculty. It persisted with its refusal even in 1946, when Hotelling received an exceptionally attractive offer from the University of North Carolina to start a statistics program with strong external financial backing. As a result, Hotelling left Columbia for Chapel Hill, where he quickly built up a strong Department of Mathematical Statistics.

Hotelling married Floy Tracy in 1920, and they had two children. After her early death in 1934, he married Susanna Edmundson, with whom he had five sons. He retired in



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