Biographical Memoirs


NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 87 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 87 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 87 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 87 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-09579-4 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20001 COPYRIGHT 2005 BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 87 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     LARS VALERIAN AHLFORS BY FREDERICK GEHRING   3     GABRIEL A. ALMOND BY SIDNEY VERBA, LUCIAN PYE, AND HEINZ EULAU   31     THOMAS FOXEN ANDERSON BY ROBERT P. PERRY   51     JULIUS AXELROD BY SOLOMON H. SNYDER   75     ELSO STERRENBERG BARGHOORN, JR. BY LYNN MARGULIS AND ANDREW H. KNOLL   93     HERMAN SAMUEL BLOCH BY JAMES P. SHOFFNER   111     JOSEPH W. CHAMBERLAIN BY DONALD M. HUNTEN   131

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 87     ANSLEY J. COALE BY THOMAS J. ESPENSHADE, JAMES TRUSSELL, AND CHARLES F. WESTOFF   151     DONALD SHARP FREDRICKSON BY JAMES B. WYNGAARDEN   165     JAMES HALL JR. BY ROBERT H. DOTT JR.   181     ZELLIG SABBATAI HARRIS BY W. C. WATT   199     HAROLD HOTELLING BY K. J. ARROW AND E. L. LEHMANN   221     MARTIN GLOVER LARRABEE BY DAVID R. BURT   235     MELVIN LAX BY JOSEPH L. BIRMAN AND HERMAN Z. CUMMINS   251     LEONARD MANDEL BY ROBERT J. SCULLY, MARLAN O. SCULLY, AND H. JEFF KIMBLE   275     RICHARD DRUMMOND MCKELVEY BY THOMAS R. PALFREY   295     EUGENE PLEASANTS ODUM BY GARY W. BARRETT   317     HARRISON SHULL BY DONALD S. MCCLURE AND MICHAEL KASHA   333     HANS E. SUESS BY HEINRICH WAENKE AND JAMES R. ARNOLD   355     RAYMOND ELLIOT ZIRKLE BY ROBERT P. PERRY   375

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 87 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy’s goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject’s work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation’s contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. JOHN I. BRAUMAN Home Secretary

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