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ANNEX TABLE B11-4 Benefit Vector (Z) for Hypothetical Example of Scholarship Program for Girls

Benefits

Elements of Vector Z

Enhanced productivity

100

Reduced fertility

50

Improved health

10

Improved health of children

10

Decreased medical care expenditure

270

Increased schoolinga

475

Increased schooling of childrena

249

Averted HIV infectionsa

597

aElements obtained by solving the equation above for Z2, i.e., Z2 = (I − T2')−1 T1' Z1.

SOURCE: See text.

REFERENCES

Alderman, H., Behrman, J.R., Ross, D., and Sabot, R. (1996). The returns to endogenous human capital in Pakistan’s rural wage labor market. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 58(1), 29-55.

Angrist, J.D., Bettinger, E., Bloom, E., King, E., and Kremer, M. (2002). Vouchers for private schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a randomized natural experiment. American Economic Review, 92(5), 1535-1559.


Ballard, C., Shoven, J., and Whalley, J. (1985). General equilibrium computations of the marginal welfare costs of taxes in the United States. American Economic Review, 75(1), 128-138.

Becker, G.S. (1967). Human capital and the personal distribution of income: An analytical approach (Woytinsky Lecture). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan. (Republished in Human capital [2nd ed.] pp. 97-117) 1975, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Behrman, J.R., and Knowles, J.C. (1998a). The distributional implications of government family planning and reproductive health services in Vietnam. (Prepared for the Rockefeller Foundation). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

Behrman, J.R., and Knowles, J.C. (1998b). Population and reproductive health: An economic framework for policy evaluation. Population and Development Review, 24(4), 697-738.

Behrman, J.R., and Knowles, J.C. (1999). Household income and child schooling in Vietnam. World Bank Economic Review, 13(2), 211-256.

Behrman, J.R., Ross, D., and Sabot, R. (2005). Improving the quality versus increasing the quantity of schooling: Evidence from rural Pakistan. Pennsylvania Institute for Economic Research. (PIER Working Paper 02-022.) Available: http://www.econ.upenn.edu/Centers/pier/Archive/02-022.pdf [accessed September 2005].


Caribbean Group for Cooperation in Economic Development (CGCED). (2002, June). Youth development in the Carribbean. (Draft Report No. 24163-LAC.) Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. (2001). Macroeconomics and health: Investing in health for economic development. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.


Devarajan, S., Squire, L., and Suthiwart-Narueput, S. (1997). Beyond rate of return: Reorienting project appraisal. World Bank Research Observer, 12(1), 35-46.



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