for higher network layers, often resulting in very low throughputs and long delays for data delivery. It is important to consider optics as a network system rather than an isolated communication link. As described in the section above on Transport Layer Design, the Physical Layer and the network architecture must be codesigned. High-priority areas of research include the following:

  • Understand the interaction of network protocols with the optical link and quantify the performance shortcomings.

  • Jointly design the Physical Layer and higher network layers, making judicious use of spatial, temporal, frequency, and route diversity.

  • Internetworking with other modalities, including using them as backup for guaranteed message delivery.

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