Activities of Daily Living (ADL):

The measurement of independence that is based on the following five personal care activities: bathing, dressing, using the toilet, getting in or out of bed or chair, and eating.

Attribute, Health:

A state, behavior, or perception that is part of an operational definition of health-related quality of life.

Bayesian Methods:

Statistical techniques for synthesizing data from different studies using empirical data and subjective probability. Used in benefits transfer to combine such data with information on the regulatory scenario.


Generally used to indicate a positive or desirable outcome. See Chapter 5 for specific definitions relevant to the calculation of cost-effectiveness ratios.

Benefit–Cost Analysis (BCA):

Also referred to as cost-benefit analysis (CBA). A type of economic analysis that compares the monetary value of improvements and harms to determine the option that provides the largest net benefits to society.

Benefit Transfer:

The practice of applying estimates developed in an existing research study (the “study scenario”) to another context, such as a regulatory analysis (the “regulatory scenario”). Generally involves using studies that differ somewhat from the regulatory context in terms of the characteristics of the risks or of the affected population.

Concurrent Validity:

A type of validity based on a comparison of scores on a measurement to those obtained by applying alternative, equivalent measurements at the same time.


A concept or model developed or constructed through informed scientific theory.

Construct Validity:

A type of validity that compares results of several contrasting tests of validity (e.g., convergent and divergent validation tests) with predictions from a model.

Content Validity:

The extent to which a measurement covers all aspects of the topic being assessed.

Contingent Valuation:

A stated preference method that uses surveys to directly elicit estimates of individual willingness to pay. These values are “contingent” on the realization of the scenarios described in the study.

Convergent Validity:

The extent to which two or more measuring instruments for the same topic are in accord.


A measure of association that conveys the degree to which two or more sets of observations fit a linear relationship.

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