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Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis E Biographical Sketches COMMITTEE TO EVALUATE MEASURES OF HEALTH BENEFITS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY REGULATION Robert S. Lawrence, M.D., Chair, is the Edyth Schoenrich Professor of Preventive Medicine, Associate Dean for Professional Practice and Programs, Director of the Center for a Livable Future, and Professor of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He is a founding member of Physicians for Human Rights and served as President of that organization from 1998 to 2003. Dr. Lawrence chaired the first U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (1984–1989) and served on the successor Task Force from 1990–1996. He currently consults for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Dr. Lawrence graduated from Harvard Medical School, trained in Internal Medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and served for three years as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, CDC. Dr. Lawrence served as Chair of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) committees that investigated dioxin in the food supply, that considered extensions of Medicare benefits, and that set priorities for vaccine development. Henry A. Anderson, M.D., is the Wisconsin State Environmental and Occupational Disease Epidemiologist and Chief Medical Officer. He holds adjunct professorships at the University of Wisconsin Medical School-Madison
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Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Department of Population Health and Institute for Environmental Studies. His published work and research interests cover a broad spectrum of environmental, occupational, and public health topics, including disease surveillance, risk assessment, childhood asthma, lead poisoning, mercury and PCBs in fish, arsenic in drinking water, asbestos disease, and occupational fatalities and injuries. He was a founding member of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Board of Scientific Councilors (1988–1992) and the Director’s Advisory Committee for the CDC National Center for Environmental Health (1999–2003). He currently chairs the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Science Advisory Board, serves on the Presidential Advisory Board on Radiation Worker Compensation, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Children’s Health Protection Advisory Council. He is past chair of the Environmental Health Committee of the EPA Science Advisory Board and from 1997–2003 served on the EPA Science Advisory Board Executive Committee. He received his M.D. degree from the University of Wisconsin Medical School. Richard Burnett, Ph.D., is a Senior Research Scientist with the Safe Environments Program at Health Canada, where he has worked since 1983 on issues related to the health effects of outdoor air pollution. He is also adjunct professor, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, at the University of Ottawa. Dr. Burnett’s work has focused on the use of administrative health and environmental information to determine the public health impacts of combustion-related pollution using nonlinear random effects models, time series, and spatial analytical techniques. He served on the 2001 National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States. His Ph.D. in mathematical statistics is from Queen’s University. Carl F. Cranor, Ph.D., is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Riverside, specializing in legal and moral philosophy. He has written widely on philosophic issues at the intersection of science and the law, including philosophic issues in risk assessment and the regulation of toxic substances, and analysis of the acceptability of risks. More recently his work concerns the use of science in the tort law and the precautionary principle. He wrote Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law and has just completed a book to be published by Cambridge University Press, tentatively entitled Toxic Torts: Science, Law and the Possibility of Justice. As a Congressional Fellow, he worked at the U.S. Congress’ Office of Technology Assessment co-authoring The Identification and Regulation of Carcinogens (1987). He has served on science advisory panels for the State of California. An elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Collegium Ramazzini,
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Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Professor Cranor received his B.A degree from the University of Colorado, a Ph.D. from UCLA, and an M.S.L. from Yale Law School. Maureen Cropper, Ph.D., is a Professor of Economics at the University of Maryland, a Lead Economist at the World Bank, and a University Fellow at Resources for the Future. Her research has focused on valuing environmental amenities (especially environmental health effects), on the discounting of future health benefits, and on the trade-offs implicit in environmental regulations. Her recent research focuses on factors affecting deforestation in developing countries and on the externalities associated with motorization. Dr. Cropper is past president of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists and a former chair of the Advisory Council for Clean Air Act Compliance Analysis, a subcommittee of EPA’s Science Advisory Board. She has served on the advisory boards of Resources for the Future, the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, the Donald Bren School of the Environment, and the AEI-Brookings Center on Regulation. Dr. Cropper received a B.A. in Economics from Bryn Mawr College and a Ph.D. in Economics from Cornell University. Norman Daniels, Ph.D., is Professor of Ethics and Population Health at the Harvard School of Public Health, formerly having served as Goldthwaite Professor and Chair of the Tufts Philosophy Department and Professor of Medical Ethics at Tufts Medical School. He has written widely in the philosophy of science, ethics, political and social philosophy, and medical ethics. His most recent books include Seeking Fair Treatment: From the AIDS Epidemic to National Health Care Reform (1995); Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform (co-authored, 1996); From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice (co-authored, 2000); Is Inequality Bad for Our Health? (co-authored, 2000); and (with James Sabin) Setting Limits Fairly: Can We Learn to Share Medical Resources? (2002). Professor Daniels is a fellow of the Hastings Center, a member of the IOM, and a founding member of the National Academy of Social Insurance and of the International Society for Equity in Health. He received his doctorate in philosophy from Harvard University. Dennis G. Fryback, Ph.D., is a professor of Population Health Sciences and of Industrial Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He joined the staff at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1974 and since 1984 has been a Professor of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Fryback has chaired the Health Care Technology Study Section for the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. He was a member of the United States Preventive Services Task Force and served on the Panel on Cost Effectiveness in Health and Medicine convened by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health
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Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Promotion of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). In 1997–1998 he served as a member of the IOM’s Committee on Summarizing Population Health and was appointed to the national advisory board for the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in 1997. Dr. Fryback is a founding member of the Society for Medical Decision Making (SMDM), has remained continuously active in SMDM activities since 1978, and has served as SMDM president. The SMDM named him a recipient of the SMDM Award for Career Achievement. He received an M.A. in mathematics and Ph.D. in mathematical psychology from the University of Michigan, where he trained in human decision making and decision analysis. He was elected to the IOM in 2000. Alan M. Garber, M.D., Ph.D., is the Henry J. Kaiser Jr. Professor and a professor of medicine, of economics, of business, and of health research and policy at Stanford University. He has been the director of both the university’s Center for Health Policy and the Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research since their founding. He directs the health care program of the National Bureau of Economic Research and serves as a staff physician at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, where he is the associate director of the VA Center for Health Care Evaluation. Dr. Garber’s research is directed toward methods for improving health care delivery and financing, particularly for the elderly, in settings of limited resources. He has developed methods for determining the cost-effectiveness of health interventions, and studies ways to structure financial and organizational incentives to ensure that cost-effective care is delivered. He is Chair of the Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee, and is a member of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association’s Medical Advisory Panel, the National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Aging, and the IOM, among other distinctions. Dr. Garber received his undergraduate degree summa cum laude and Ph.D. in economics from Harvard and an M.D. with research honors from Stanford. Marthe R. Gold, M.D., M.P.H., has served as the Arthur C. Logan Professor and Chair of the Department of Community Health and Social Medicine at the City University of New York Medical School since 1997. She has served as a Senior Policy Adviser in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, DHHS, and on the 1993 Task Force for Health Care Reform, where she worked on benefit design and protections for vulnerable populations. Dr. Gold directed the work of the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine, a nonfederal expert panel whose final report, issued by the DHHS in 1996, remains an influential guide to cost-effectiveness methodology for academic and policy uses. She co-edited the IOM 1998 report, Summarizing Population Health, and has participated in national
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Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and international groups seeking to standardize health status measures. Dr. Gold has published in the areas of socioeconomic predictors of and disparities in health, measurement of health outcomes, and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis in resource allocation. She has served on a number of advisory committees for agencies of the DHHS including the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the CDC, and the National Center for Health Statistics, among other government and privately sponsored advisory groups. A family physician, she trained and subsequently served on the faculty of the Department of Community and Family Medicine at the University of Rochester Medical School. James K. Hammitt, Ph.D., is Professor of Economics and Decision Sciences and Director of the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis at the Harvard School of Public Health. His research and teaching concern the development of decision analysis, benefit–cost analysis, game theory, and other quantitative methods and their application to health and environmental policy in the United States and internationally. He is particularly interested in the management of long-term environmental issues such as global climate change and stratospheric-ozone depletion, in comprehensive evaluation of risk-control measures (including ancillary benefits and countervailing risks), and in alternative methods for measuring the value of reducing health risks, including monetary and health-adjusted life-year metrics. Professor Hammitt serves as a member of the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee and the Advisory Council on Clear Air Compliance Analysis of the EPA Science Advisory Board. He recently concluded service as a member of the American Statistical Association Committee on Energy Statistics (Advisory Committee to the U.S. Energy Information Administration) and the NRC panel studying the implications of dioxin in the food supply. Professor Hammitt holds degrees in applied mathematics (A.B., Sc.M.) and public policy (M.P.P., Ph.D.) from Harvard University. He was previously Senior Mathematician at the RAND Corporation and a faculty member at the RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies. Lisa I. Iezzoni, M.D., M.Sc., is Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Co-Director of Research in the Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Medicine, at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. She received her degrees in medicine and health policy and management from Harvard University. Dr. Iezzoni has conducted numerous studies for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Medicare agency, and private foundations on a variety of topics, including methods for predicting costs, clinical outcomes, and quality of care. She has published and spoken widely on risk adjustment and has edited Risk Adjustment for Measuring Health Care Outcomes, now in its third edition
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Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (2003). A 1996 recipient of the Investigator Award in Health Policy Research from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, she is studying health care quality and policy issues relating to persons with disabilities. Her book When Walking Fails was published in the spring of 2003, and another book, More Than Ramps: Improving Health Care Quality and Access for People with Disabilities, co-authored with Bonnie L. O’Day, is scheduled for publication in late 2005. Dr. Iezzoni is a member of the IOM in the National Academy of Sciences. Peter D. Jacobson, J.D., M.P.H., is Professor of Health Law and Policy in the Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan School of Public Health, where he teaches courses on health law and law and public health. He is also Director of the Center for Law, Ethics, and Health. Before coming to the University of Michigan, he was Senior Behavioral Scientist at RAND from 1988 to 1996. In 1995, Professor Jacobson received an Investigator Award in Health Policy Research from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to examine the role of the courts in shaping health care policy. He has also published a series of articles on the development of legal doctrine in managed care litigation. He has written on the treatment of cost-effectiveness analysis by the courts for an IOM symposium. His most recent book is Strangers in the Night: Law and Medicine in the Managed Care Era (2002). Professor Jacobson is a member of the Board of Editors of the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. He received his law degree from the University of Pittsburgh School of Law and his M.P.H. from UCLA. Emmett Keeler, Ph.D., has been a senior mathematician with RAND since 1968. He is currently leading a large study of 40 organizations to evaluate interventions to improve care for chronic illness. He also leads a project that supplies cost-effectiveness analyses to a variety of UCLA geriatric interventions. Dr. Keeler teaches analytic methods at UCLA and at The Pardee RAND Graduate School and has taught at Harvard and the University of Chicago. In 2003 he received the distinguished investigator award from AcademyHealth. Dr. Keeler served on the NRC’s Panel to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph and the IOM’s Subcommittee on Economic Costs of Uninsured Populations. His Ph.D. in mathematics is from Harvard University. Willard G. Manning, Ph.D., is Professor at the Harris School of Public Policy at The University of Chicago. His primary research focus has been the effects of health insurance and alternative delivery systems on the use of health services and health status. He has also the studied the economics of poor health habits. He is an expert in statistical issues related to health
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Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis expenditures, and cost-effectiveness analysis. He has received article of the year awards for his work on the effects of managed care, on the costs of poor health habits, and on econometric methods for health expenditure data. He was a member of the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Dr. Manning has served on several IOM committees and is a member of the IOM. His Ph.D. in economics is from Stanford University. Charles Poole, M.P.H., Sc.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health, where his work focuses on the development and application of epidemiologic research methods and principles. His areas of substantive research interest include environmental and occupational epidemiology. He served with the EPA, worked as an epidemiologic consultant, and taught at the Boston University School of Public Health. He has served on the editorial boards of several leading epidemiological journals. Dr. Poole has served on four previous NRC committees, including the Committee on Estimating the Health-Risk-Reduction Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations. He received his M.P.H. degree from the University of North Carolina and his Sc.D. degree from Harvard University. David A. Schkade, M.B.A, Ph.D., is the Jerome S. Katzin Chair of the Rady School of Management at University of California, San Diego. Until 2004, he was the Herbert D. Kelleher/MCorp Regents Professor of Business at the University of Texas, Austin. He has been a visiting senior research scholar in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public Affairs at Princeton University, and on the faculties of the University of Chicago and Duke University. Professor Schkade has published on a variety of topics, including environmental resource valuation, the psychology of well-being, loss aversion, and jury decision making. His work has been supported by grants from public agencies, private foundations, and corporations. He currently serves on the editorial boards of three journals and has served on grant review and site visit panels of the National Science Foundation and the EPA. His work on punitive damages has been cited in several court cases, including opinions by the U.S. Supreme Court, the First U.S. District Court, and the California State Supreme Court. He received B.A. (Mathematics) and M.B.A. degrees from the University of Texas, Austin, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Organizational Psychology from Carnegie Mellon University. ADVISERS TO THE COMMITTEE Alan Krupnick, Ph.D., is Senior Fellow and Director, Quality of the Environment at Resources for the Future in Washington, D.C. His research addresses the valuation of health and ecological improvements and also
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Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis focuses on analyzing environmental issues, in particular, the benefits, costs, and design of air pollution policies, both in the United States and in developing countries. Dr. Krupnick has served as a consultant to state governments, federal agencies, private corporations, the Canadian government, the European Union, the World Health Organization, and the World Bank. He co-chaired an advisory committee that counseled the EPA on new ozone and particulate standards. Dr. Krupnick also served as senior economist on the President’s Council of Economic Advisers, advising the Clinton Administration on environmental and natural resource policy issues. He is a regular member of expert committees from the National Academies. Judith L. Wagner, Ph.D., is a Scholar-in-Residence at the IOM. She has more than 30 years’ experience in health policy analysis and health technology economics. Most recently, as a Senior Analyst at the Congressional Budget Office, she specialized in prescription drug issues, including the design of a Medicare prescription drug benefit, Medicaid drug payment, and reform of current laws governing the entrance of generic drugs into the marketplace. Before joining CBO, she was a consultant at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, where she conducted cost and cost-effectiveness analyses of medical procedures and technologies. She also managed major assessments of the cost-effectiveness of preventive and diagnostic technologies at the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. Dr. Wagner holds a Ph.D. from Cornell University, where she studied economics and operations research with an emphasis on environmental applications. She also holds masters’ degrees from the University of Michigan (in economics) and from Cornell (in environmental systems engineering). Milton C. Weinstein, Ph.D., is the Henry J. Kaiser Professor of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health, Professor of Medicine at the Harvard Medical School, and Director of the Program on Economic Evaluation of Medical Technology. He is best known for his research on cost-effectiveness of medical practices and for developing methods of economic evaluation and decision analysis in health care. He is a co-developer of the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications computer simulation model and also of the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model, which has been used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular prevention and treatment. His current research relates to infectious disease treatment, screening, and vaccination. He was a member of both IOM committees on vaccine priorities and developed the methodology that was used to quantify the potential health and economic benefits of new vaccines. Dr. Weinstein has authored Decision Making in Health and Medicine: Integrating Evidence and Values; Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine, the report of the Panel of Cost Effectiveness in Health and Medi-
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Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis cine; Clinical Decision Analysis; and Hypertension: A Policy Perspective. He is a member of the IOM of the National Academies and a recipient of the Award for Career Achievement from the Society for Medical Decision Making. Dr. Weinstein received his A.B. and A.M. in Applied Mathematics (1970), his M.P.P. (1972), and his Ph.D. in Public Policy (1973) from Harvard University. IOM STAFF AND CONSULTANT Wilhelmine Miller, M.S., Ph.D., is a senior program officer at the IOM and staff director for the Committee. She has been at IOM for seven years, and co-directed the four-year, six-report IOM study on the consequences of uninsurance. Prior to joining IOM, Dr. Miller was an adjunct faculty member in the Departments of Philosophy at Georgetown University and Trinity College, Washington, DC, where she taught political philosophy, ethics, and public policy. She received her doctorate in philosophy from Georgetown in 1997. From 1976–1989 Dr. Miller served as a policy analyst and social scientist within the Department of Health and Human Services. She received her M.S. degree in health policy and management from Harvard University in 1976. Ryan Palugod, B.A., is a research assistant in the IOM Division of Health Care Services. He has worked with several projects over his five-year tenure at IOM, including studies of uninsurance, immunization and vaccine finance, and the quality of mental health and substance abuse services. Prior to coming to IOM, Mr. Palugod worked as an administrative assistant with the American Association of Homes, Services for the Aging. He graduated from Towson University in 1999 with a degree in health care management and is pursuing a master’s degree in public administration at George Mason University. Lisa A. Robinson, M.P.P., is an independent consultant who specializes in the economic analysis of regulations. She was previously a Principal at Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc), where she directed numerous regulatory impact analyses for the EPA and other clients. Ms. Robinson also developed state-of-the-art methods for benefit–cost analysis and authored several guidance documents. Prior to her employment at IEc, she was the Director of Policy, Planning and Budget for a federal agency and an analyst at the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. She received her Master in Public Policy degree from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1982.
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