distributional effects, 274–275

the effectiveness metric for public health and safety rulemakings, 272–274

scope of, 275

to unfunded mandates, 311

Ancillary benefits and countervailing risks, 289–290

Anderson, Henry A., 326–327

Annualized values, 212

APA. See Administrative Procedure Act

Applicability issues, 117

Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instrument, 126n

Assignment of health states by experts or other proxies, 106–109

expert assignment of health states using generic HRQL instruments, 110–111

Asymmetric information, 263–264

Availability issues, 98–102

Averaging, banking and/or trading (ABT) of credits, 268

B

Bacillus cereus, 204–210

Baseline, developing, 276–277

BAT. See “Best available technology”

Bayesian methods, 318

Benefit–cost analysis (BCA), 1–4, 7, 10–12, 15–22, 27–59, 64, 67, 129–134, 143–146, 151, 157, 168–174, 178–182, 188–189, 194, 197, 204, 214, 217, 229, 238, 241, 269–272, 292, 300, 318

calculation of net benefits, 31

valuation approach, 29–30

Benefit point transfer, 289

Benefits, 4, 318

Benefits analysis guidelines, 51–55

monetized health-adjusted life years in benefit–cost analysis, 53

OMB criteria for evaluating stated preference studies, 54

Benefits and costs

ancillary benefits and countervailing risks, 289–290

benefit-transfer methods, 287–289

categories of, 313

developing estimates of, 279–296

discount rates, 296–303

identifying and measuring, 275–310

methods for treating non-monetized, 290–292

monetizing health and safety, 292–296

other key considerations, 303–305

qualitative, 313

quantifying and monetizing, 291–292, 313

revealed preference methods, 282–285

stated preference methods, 285–287

treatment of uncertainty, 305–310

treatment over time, 313–314

Benefits transfer, 4, 116–121, 318

methods for, 287–289

BenMAP model, 229

“Best available technology” (BAT), 44

Best practices, 258

in stated preference surveys and benefits transfer, 125

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, 121

Brauer, Carmen, 120

“Break-even” analysis, 260

Bush, George H.W., 22

Bush, George W., 22

C

Calculation

of cost-effectiveness, 36–37

of health gains, 149–151

Carter, Jimmy, 22

Case study analytic approach, 193–244

conclusion, 240–241

EPA’s nonroad engine air emissions regulation, 228–240

FDA’s juice processing regulation, 204–215

general approach, 195–203

NHTSA estimates of annual quantified benefits, 218

NHTSA’s child restraints regulation, 215–228

purpose and scope, 193–195

Case study process, 196

Category rating (CR), 77–81, 98

CDS. See Crashworthiness Data System

CEA. See Cost-effectiveness analysis

CEA Registry, 118, 228, 235, 240

Center for Risk Analysis, 117

“Cessation lag,” 300

CFR. See Code of Federal Regulations



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