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Assessing and Managing the Ecological Impacts of Paved Roads References AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). 1993. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, 1993. GDPS-4. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). 2002a. Transportation Invest in America, The Bottom Line [online]. Available: http://transportation.org/bottomline/bottomline2002.pdf [accessed Feb. 13, 2004]. AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). 2002b. Roadside Design Guide, 3rd Ed. Washington, DC: American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials. AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). 2003. Transportation Invest in America, Listening to America, Report on AASHO’s TEA_21 Reauthorization Regional Forums [online]. Available: http://transportation.org/download/ListeningToAmerica.pdf [accessed Feb. 18, 2004]. Allen, T.F.H., and T.W. Hoekstra. 1992. Toward a Unified Ecology. New York: Columbia University Press. Allen, T.F.H., and T.B. Starr. 1982. Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. AMPO (Association of Metropolitan Planning Organization). 2004. Metropolitan Planning Organization Website [online]. Available: http://www.ampo.org/ [accessed Feb. 18, 2004]. Andreasen, J.K., R.V. O’Neill, R. Noss, and N.C. Slosser. 2001. Considerations for the development of a terrestrial index of ecological integrity. Ecological Indicators 1(1):21-35. Angold, P.G. 1997. The impact of a road upon adjacent heathland vegetation: Effects on plant species composition. J. Appl. Ecol. 34(2):409-417.

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