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INTRODUCTION 543 REFERENCES Full references, which also appear in the parent report series, the Dietary Refer- ence Intakes, are not printed in this book but are provided online at http:// www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html.

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References INTRODUCTION TO THE DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (ISBN 0-309-08537-3), Chapter 1, pp. 36–37. AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). 1997. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 100:1035–1039. Atkinson SA, Alston-Mills BP, Lonnerdal B, Neville MC, Thompson M. 1995. Major minerals and ionic constituents of human and bovine milk. In: Jensen RJ, ed. Handbook of Milk Composition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Pp. 593–619. Butte NF, Garza C, Smith EO, Nichols BL. 1984. Human milk intake and growth in exclusively breast-fed infants. J Pediatr 104:187–195. Chandra RK. 1984. Physical growth of exclusively breast-fed infants. Nutr Res 2:275– 276. COMA (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy). 1991. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients in the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects, No. 41. London: HMSO. FAO/WHO/UNA (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/ World Health Organization/United Nations Association). 1985. Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNA Expert Consultation. Tech- nical Report Series. No. 724. Geneva: WHO. Garby L, Lammert O. 1984. Within-subjects between-days-and-weeks variation in energy expenditure at rest. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 38:395–397. Health Canada. 1990. Nutrition Recommendations. The Report of the Scientific Review Committee 1990. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Centre. Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG. 1993. Energy and protein intakes of breast-fed and formula-fed infants during the first year of life and their association with growth velocity: The DARLING Study. Am J Clin Nutr 58:152–161. 545

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546 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Herman-Giddens ME, Slora EJ, Wasserman RC, Bourdony CJ, Bhapkar MV, Koch GG, Hasemeier CM. 1997. Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: A study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network. Pediatrics 99:505–512. Hofvander Y, Hagman U, Hillervik C, Sjolin S. 1982. The amount of milk con- sumed by 1–3 months old breast- or bottle-fed infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 71:953–958. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1991. Nutrition During Lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000a. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000b. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chro- mium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Guo SS, Wei R, Mei Z, Curtin LR, Roche AF, Johnson CL. 2000. CDC growth charts: United States. Adv Data 314:1–28. Neville MC, Keller R, Seacat J, Lutes V, Neifert M, Casey C, Allen J, Archer P. 1988. Studies in human lactation: Milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 48:1375–1386. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Specker BL, Beck A, Kalkwarf H, Ho M. 1997. Randomized trial of varying mineral intake on total body bone mineral accretion during the first year of life. Pediat- rics 99:E12. Tanner JM. 1990. Growth at Adolescence. Oxford: Oxford University Press. WHO (World Health Organization). 1996. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: WHO. Ibid., Chapter 4, pp. 105–106. Dourson ML, Stara JF. 1983. Regulatory history and experimental support of uncertainty (safety) factors. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 3:224–238. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 1982. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contami- nants. Twenty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No. 683. Geneva: WHO. FAO/WHO. 1995. The Application of Risk Analysis to Food Standard Issues. Recom- mendations to the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 95/9, Appendix 5). Geneva: WHO. Health Canada. 1993. Health Risk Determination—The Challenge of Health Protection. Ottawa: Health Canada, Health Protection Branch.

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547 O NLINE REFERENCES Hill AB. 1971. Principles of Medical Statistics, 9th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J. 1986. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan. Mertz W, Abernathy CO, Olin SS. 1994. Risk Assessment of Essential Elements. Wash- ington, DC: ILSI Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Acad- emy Press. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1993. Researching Health Risks. Washing- ton, DC: OTA. WHO (World Health Organization). 1987. Principles for the Safety Assessment of Food Additives and Contaminants in Food. Environmental Health Criteria 70. Geneva: WHO. WHO. 1996. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: WHO. Zielhuis RL, van der Kreek FW. 1979. The use of a safety factor in setting health- based permissible levels for occupational exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 42:191–201. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment (ISBN 0-309-07183-6), Chapter 10, pp. 168–177. Aickin M, Ritenbaugh C. 1991. Estimation of the true distribution of vitamin A intake by the unmixing algorithm. Communications Stat Simulations 20:255–280. Aksnes L, Aarskog D. 1982. Plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in puberty: Effect of sexual maturation and implications for growth. J Clin Endo- crinol Metab 55:94–101. Aloia JF, Vaswani A, Yeh JK, Ross PL, Flaster E, Dilmanian FA. 1994. Calcium supplementation with and without hormone replacement therapy to prevent postmenopausal bone loss. Ann Intern Med 120:97–103. AR (Army Regulation) 40-25. 1985. See U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, 1985. Baran D, Sorensen A, Grimes J, Lew R, Karellas A, Johnson B, Roche J. 1990. Dietary modification with dairy products for preventing vertebral bone loss in premenopausal women: A three-year prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70:264–270. Barr SI, Janelle KC, Prior JC. 1995. Energy intakes are higher during the luteal phase of ovulatory menstrual cycles. Am J Clin Nutr 61:39–43. Basiotis PP, Welsh SO, Cronin FJ, Kelsay JL, Mertz W. 1987. Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient intakes with defined confidence. J Nutr 117:1638–1641. Beaton GH. 1991. Interpretation of results from dietary studies. In: Kohlmeier L, ed. The Diet History Method: Proceedings of the 2nd Berlin Meeting on Nutritional Epidemiology. London: Smith-Gordon/Nishimura. Pp. 15–38. Beaton GH. 1994. Criteria of an adequate diet. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th edition. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. Pp. 1491–1505.

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548 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Beaton GH. 1999. Recommended dietary intakes: Individuals and populations. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Pp. 1705–1725. Beaton GH, Chery A. 1988. Protein requirements of infants: A reexamination of concepts and approaches. Am J Clin Nutr 48:1403–1412. Beaton GH, Milner J, Corey P, McGuire V, Cousins M, Stewart E, deRamos M, Hewitt D, Grambsch PV, Kassim N, Little JA. 1979. Sources of variance in 24- hour dietary recall data: Implications for nutrition study design and interpre- tation. Am J Clin Nutr 32:2546–2559. Beaton GH, Milner J, McGuire V, Feather TE, Little JA. 1983. Source of variance in 24-hour dietary recall data: Implications for nutrition study design and inter- pretation. Carbohydrate sources, vitamins, and minerals. Am J Clin Nutr 37:986–995. Black AE, Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Jebb SA, Bingham SA, Livingstone MB, Coward WA. 1993. Measurements of total energy expenditure provide insights into the validity of dietary measurements of energy intake. J Am Diet Assoc 93:572–579. Block G, Hartman AM, Dresser CM, Carroll MD, Gannon J, Gardner L. 1986. A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. Am J Epidemiol 124:453–469. Bolland JE, Ward JY, Bolland TW. 1990. Improved accuracy of estimating food quantities up to 4 weeks after training. J Am Diet Assoc 90:1402–1404, 1407. Bull NL, Buss DH. 1982. Biotin, panthothenic acid and vitamin E in the British household food supply. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr 36:190–196. Burk MC, Pao EM. 1976. Methodology for large-scale surveys of household and individual diets. Home Econ Res Rep No. 40. Washington, DC: Agricultural Research Service/U.S. Department of Agriculture. Burke BS. 1947. The dietary history as a tool in research. J Am Diet Assoc 23:1041– 1046. Buzzard IM, Price KS, Warren RA. 1991. Considerations for selecting nutrient- calculation software: Evaluation of the nutrient database. Am J Clin Nutr 54:7–9. Cameron ME, Van Staveren W. 1988. Manual on Methodology for Food Consumption Studies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Canadian Council on Nutrition. 1938. Canadian Dietary Standards. Ottawa: Depart- ment of Pensions and National Health. Carriquiry AL. 1999. Assessing the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy. Public Health Nutr 2:23–33. Carriquiry AL, Dodd KW, Nusser SM. 1997. Estimating Adjusted Intake and Bio- chemical Measurement Distributions for NHANES III. Final report prepared for the National Center for Health Statistics. Chan GM, Hoffman K, McMurry M. 1995. Effects of dairy products on bone and body composition in pubertal girls. J Pediatr 126:551–556. Chen C. 1999. Spline Estimators of the Distribution Function of a Variable Mea- sured with Error. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, Ames. Chevalley T, Rizzoli R, Nydegger V, Slosman D, Rapin CH, Michel JP, Vasey H, Bonjour JP. 1994. Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin-D-replete elderly patients. Osteoporos Int 4:245–252.

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549 O NLINE REFERENCES COMA (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy). 1991. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects, No. 41. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Crane NT, Green NR. 1980. Food habits and food preferences of Vietnamese refu- gees living in northern Florida. J Am Diet Assoc 76:591–593. Dabeka RW, McKenzie AD, Conacher HBS, Kirkpatrick DC. 1982. Determination of fluoride in Canadian infant foods and calculation of fluoride intakes by infants. Can J Public Health 73:188–191. Dabeka RW, McKenzie AD, Lecroix GM. 1987. Dietary intakes of lead, cadmium, arsenic and fluoride by Canadian adults: A 24-hour duplicate diet study. Food Addit Contam 4:89–101. Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Sadowski L, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S. 1990. A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 323:878–883. Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Harris S, Sokoll LJ, Falconer G. 1991. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 115:505–512. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE, Falconer G, Green CL. 1995. Rates of bone loss in postmenopausal women randomly assigned to one of two dosages of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 61:1140–1145. Demirjian A. 1980. Anthropometry Report. Height, Weight, and Body Dimensions: A Report from Nutrition Canada. Ottawa: Minister of National Health and Welfare, Health and Promotion Directorate, Health Services and Promotion Branch. Dewey KG, Beaton GH, Fjeld C, Lonnerdal B, Reeds P. 1996. Protein requirements of infants and children. Eur J Clin Nutr 50:S119–S150. Dodd KW. 1996. A Technical Guide to C-SIDE: Software for Intake Distribution Estima- tion Version 1.0. Technical Report 96-TR 32. Ames, IA: Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University. Domel SB. 1997. Self-reports of diet: How children remember what they have eaten. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1148S–1152S. Dwyer J. 1999. Dietary assessment. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Pp. 937–959. Dwyer JT, Coleman KA. 1997. Insights into dietary recall from a longitudinal study: Accuracy over four decades. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1153S–1158S. Eckert RS, Carroll RJ, Wang N. 1997. Transformations to additivity in measure- ment error models. Biometrics 53:262–272. Eissenstat BR, Wyse BW, Hansen RG. 1986. Pantothenic acid status of adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 44:931–937. Elders PJ, Netelenbos JC, Lips P, van Ginkel FC, Khoe E, Leeuwenkamp OR, Hack- eng WH, van der Stelt PF. 1991. Calcium supplementation reduces vertebral bone loss in perimenopausal women: A controlled trial in 248 women between 46 and 55 years of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:533–540. Elders PJ, Lips P, Netelenbos JC, van Ginkel FC, Khoe E, van der Vijgh WJ, van der Stelt PF. 1994. Long-term effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in perimenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 9:963–970. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1998. FAO Food Balance Sheets 1994– 1996 Average. Rome: FAO.

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550 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization). 1970. Requirements of Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Iron. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Group. WHO Technical Report Series No. 452. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series No. 47. Geneva: WHO. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization). 1988. Requirements of Vitamin A, Iron, Folate, and Vitamin B12. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Series No. 23. Rome: FAO. FAO/WHO/UNU (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organiza- tion/United Nations University). 1985. Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Technical Report Series. No. 724. Geneva: WHO. Fuller WA. 1987. Measurement Error Models. Wiley Series in Probability and Math- ematical Statistics. New York: Wiley. Gibson RS. 1990. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press. Gibson RS, Gibson IL, Kitching J. 1985. A study of inter- and intrasubject variability in seven-day weighed dietary intakes with particular emphasis on trace ele- ments. Biol Trace Elem Res 8:79–91. Gloth FM III, Gundberg CM, Hollis BW, Haddad JG Jr, Tobin JD. 1995. Vitamin D deficiency in homebound elderly persons. J Am Med Assoc 274:1683–1686. Gordon AR, Devaney BL, Burghardt JA. 1995. Dietary effects of the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program. Am J Clin Nutr 61:221S– 231S. Greenfield H, Southgate DAT. 1992. Food Composition Data; Production, Management and Use. London: Elsevier Applied Science. Greer FR, Searcy JE, Levin RS, Steichen JJ, Steichen-Asche PS, Tsang RC. 1982. Bone mineral content and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in breast-fed infants with and without supplemental vitamin D: One-year follow- up. J Pediatr 100:919–922. Greger JL, Baligar P, Abernathy RP, Bennett OA, Peterson T. 1978. Calcium, mag- nesium, phosphorus, copper, and manganese balance in adolescent females. Am J Clin Nutr 31:117–121. Guenther PM, Kott PS, Carriquiry AL. 1997. Development of an approach for estimating usual nutrient intake distributions at the population level. J Nutr 127:1106–1112. Gultekin A, Ozalp I, Hasanoglu A, Unal A. 1987. Serum-25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels in children and adolescents. Turk J Pediatr 29:155–162. Guthrie HA. 1984. Selection and quantification of typical food portions by young adults. J Am Diet Assoc 84:1440–1444. Hallberg L, Hogdahl AM, Nilsson L, Rybo G. 1966. Menstrual blood loss—A popu- lation study. Variation at different ages and attempts to define normality. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 45:320–351. Hankin JH, Wilkens LR. 1994. Development and validation of dietary assessment methods for culturally diverse populations. Am J Clin Nutr 59:198S–200S. Haraldsdottir J, Tjonneland A, Overvad K. 1994. Validity of individual portion size estimates in a food frequency questionnaire. Int J Epidemiol 23:787–796. Hartman AM, Block G, Chan W, Williams J, McAdams M, Banks WL Jr, Robbins A. 1996. Reproducibility of a self-administered diet history questionnaire admin- istered three times over three different seasons. Nutr Cancer 25:305–315.

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551 O NLINE REFERENCES Hasling C, Charles P, Jensen FT, Mosekilde L. 1990. Calcium metabolism in post- menopausal osteoporosis: The influence of dietary calcium and net absorbed calcium. J Bone Miner Res 5:939–946. Health and Welfare Canada. 1990. Nutrition Recommendations. The Report of the Scientific Review Committee. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Centre. Heaney RP, Recker RR. 1982. Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, and caffeine on calcium balance in women. J Lab Clin Med 99:46–55. Heaney RP, Recker RR, Saville PD. 1977. Calcium balance and calcium require- ments in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 30:1603–1611. Heaney RP, Recker RR, Saville PD. 1978. Menopausal changes in calcium balance performance. J Lab Clin Med 92:953–963. Hebert JR, Ma Y, Clemow L, Ockene IS, Saperia G, Stanek EJ, Merriam PA, Ockene JK. 1997. Gender differences in social desirability and social approval bias in dietary self-report. Am J Epidemiol 146:1046–1055. Hirano M, Honma K, Daimatsu T, Hayakawa K, Oizumi J, Zaima K, Kanke Y. 1992. Longitudinal variations of biotin content in human milk. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 62:281–282. Immink MDC, Sanjur D, Burgos M. 1983. Nutritional consequences of U.S. migra- tion patterns among Puerto Rican women. Ecol Food Nutr 13:139–147. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1994. How Should the Recommended Dietary Allowances Be Revised? Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1998a. Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients. Washington, DC: National Acad- emy Press. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1998b. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Jackman LA, Millane SS, Martin BR, Wood OB, McCabe GP, Peacock M, Weaver CM. 1997. Calcium retention in relation to calcium intake and postmenar- cheal age in adolesccent females. Am J Clin Nutr 66:327–333. James WPT, Schofield EC. 1990. Human Energy Requirements: A Manual for Planners and Nutritionists. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Joachim G. 1997. The influence of time on dietary data: Differences in reported summer and winter food consumption. Nutr Health 12:33–43. Johnson RK, Soultanakis RP, Matthews DE. 1998. Literacy and body fatness are associated with underreporting of energy intake in U.S. low-income women using the multiple-pass 24-hour recall: A doubly labeled water study. J Am Diet Assoc 98:1136–1140. Johnston CC, Miller JZ, Slemenda CW, Reister TK, Hui S, Christian JC, Peacock M. 1992. Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in chil- dren. N Engl J Med 327:82–87. Juni RP. 1996. How should nutrient databases be evaluated? J Am Diet Assoc 96:120, 122. Kathman JV, Kies C. 1984. Pantothenic acid status of free living adolescent and young adults. Nutr Res 4:245–250.

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552 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Kinyamu HK, Gallagher JC, Balhorn KE, Petranick KM, Rafferty KA. 1997. Serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption in normal young and elderly free-living women and in women living in nursing homes. Am J Clin Nutr 65:790–797. Kohlmeier L, Bellach B. 1995. Exposure assessment error and its handling in nutri- tional epidemiology. Annu Rev Public Health 16:43–59. Kohlmeier L, Simonsen N, Mottus K. 1995. Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 103:177–184. Kohlmeier L, Mendez M, McDuffie J, Miller M. 1997. Computer-assisted self- interviewing: A multimedia approach to dietary assessment. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1275S–1281S. Krall EA, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S, Dallal GE, Dawson-Hughes B. 1989. Effect of vitamin D intake on seasonal variations in parathyroid hormone secretion in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 321:1777–1783. Kramer L, Osis D, Wiatrowski E, Spenser H. 1974. Dietary fluoride in different areas in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 27:590–594. Kristal AR, Abrams BF, Thornquist MD, Disogra L, Croyle RT, Shattuck AL, Henry HJ. 1990. Development and validation of a food use checklist for evaluation of community nutrition interventions. Am J Public Health 80:1318–1322. Kristal AR, Feng Z, Coates RJ, Oberman A, George V. 1997. Associations of race/ ethnicity, education, and dietary intervention with the validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire: The Women’s Health Trial Feasibility Study in Minority Populations. Am J Epidemiol 146:856–869. Kuhnlein HV. 1992. Change in the use of traditional foods by the Nuxalk native people of British Columbia. Ecol Food Nutr 27:259–282. Kuhnlein HV, Soueida R. 1992. Use and nutrient composition of traditional Baffin Inuit foods. J Food Comp Anal 5:112–126. Kuhnlein HV, Soueida R, Receveur O. 1996. Dietary nutrient profiles of Canadian Baffin Island Inuit differ by food source, season, and age. J Am Diet Assoc 96:155–162. Leung SSF, Lui S, Swaminathan R. 1989. Vitamin D status of Hong Kong Chinese infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 78:303–306. Lichtman SW, Pisarska K, Berman ER, Pestone M, Dowling H, Offenbacher E, Weisel H, Heshka S, Matthews DE, Heymsfield SB. 1992. Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. N Engl J Med 327:1893–1898. Liu K. 1988. Consideration of and compensation for intra-individual variability in nutrient intakes. In: Kohlmeier L, Helsing E, eds. Epidemiology Nutrition and Health: Proceedings of the First Berlin Meeting on Nutritional Epidemiology. London: Smith-Gordon/Nishimura. Pp. 87–106. Liu K, Stamler J, Dyer A, McKeever J, McKeever P. 1978. Statistical methods to assess and minimize the role of intra-individual variability in obscuring the relationship between dietary lipids and serum cholesterol. J Chronic Dis 31:399– 418. Lloyd T, Andon MB, Rollings N, Martel JK, Landis R, Demers LM, Eggli DF, Kieselhorst K, Kulin HE. 1993. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. J Am Med Assoc 270:841–844. Looker AC, Sempos CT, Liu K, Johnson CL, Gunter EW. 1990. Within-person variance in biochemical indicators of iron status: Effects on prevalence esti- mates. Am J Clin Nutr 52:541–547.

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1324 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Zielhuis RL, Wibomo AA. 1984. Standard setting and metal speciation: Arsenic. In: Nriagu JO, ed. Changing Metal Cycles and Human Health. New York: Springer- Verlag. Pp. 323–344. Ibid., Chapter 14, pp. 578–579. Basiotis PP, Welsh SO, Cronin FJ, Kelsay JL, Mertz W. 1987. Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient in- takes with defined confidence. J Nutr 117:1638–1641. Briefel RR, Sempos CT, McDowell MA, Chien S, Alaimo K. 1997. Dietary methods research in the Third National Health and Examination Survey: Under- reporting of energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1203S–1209S. Gibson RS, Ferguson EL. 1998. Assessment of dietary zinc in a population. Am J Clin Nutr 68:430S–434S. Hallberg L, Hulthen L. 2000. Prediction of dietary iron absorption: An algorithm for calculating absorption and bioavailability of dietary iron. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1147–1160. Heitmann BL, Lissner L. 1995. Dietary underreporting by obese individuals—Is it specific or non-specific? Br Med J 311:986–989. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1994. How Should the Recommended Dietary Allowances be Revised? Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Mertz W, Tsui JC, Judd JT, Reiser S, Hallfrisch J, Morris ER, Steele PD, Lashley E. 1991. What are people really eating? The relation between energy intake de- rived from estimated diet records and intake determined to maintain body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 54:291–295. NRC (National Research Council). 1980. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 9th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC. 1986. Nutrient Adequacy. Assessment Using Food Consumption Surveys. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. NRC. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Nusser SM, Carriquiry AL, Dodd KW, Fuller WA. 1996. A semiparametric transfor- mation approach to estimating usual daily intake distributions. J Am Stat Assoc 91:1440–1449. Schoeller DA. 1999. Recent advances from application of doubly labeled water to measurement of human energy expenditure. J Nutr 129:1765–1768. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 1999. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 13. [Online.] Available: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/ foodcomp [accessed February 2000]. WHO (World Health Organization). 1996. Zinc. In: Trace Elements in Human Nutri- tion and Health. Geneva: WHO. Pp. 72–104.

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1325 O NLINE REFERENCES APPENDIX C Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (ISBN 0-309-09158-6), Chapter 2, pp. 48–49. AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). 1997. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 100:1035–1039. Butte NF, Garza C, Smith EO, Nichols BL. 1984. Human milk intake and growth in exclusively breast-fed infants. J Pediatr 104:187–195. Chandra RK. 1984. Physical growth of exclusively breast-fed infants. Nutr Res 2:275– 276. Feinleib M, Rifkind B, Sempos C, Johnson C, Bachorik P, Lippel K, Carroll M, Ingster-Moore L, Murphy R. 1993. Methodological issues in the measure- ment of cardiovascular risk factors: Within-person variability in selected se- rum lipid measures—Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III). Can J Cardiol 9:87D–88D. Health Canada. 1990. Nutrition Recommendations. The Report of the Scientific Review Committee 1990. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Centre. Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG. 1993. Energy and protein intakes of breast-fed and formula-fed infants during the first year of life and their association with growth velocity: The DARLING Study. Am J Clin Nutr 58:152–161. Heitmann BL, Lissner L. 1995. Dietary underreporting by obese individuals—Is it specific or non-specific? Br Med J 311:986–989. Hill AB. 1971. Principles of Medical Statistics, 9th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Hofvander Y, Hagman U, Hillervik C, Sjolin S. 1982. The amount of milk con- sumed by 1–3 months old breast- or bottle-fed infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 71:953–958. Hytten FE, Leitch I. 1971. The Physiology of Human Pregnancy, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1991. Nutrition During Lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2002/2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Acad- emies Press. Lichtman SW, Pisarska K, Berman ER, Pestone M, Dowling H, Offenbacher E, Weisel H, Heshka S, Matthews DE, Heymsfield SB. 1992. Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. N Engl J Med 327:1893–1898. Mertz W, Tsui JC, Judd JT, Reiser S, Hallfrisch J, Morris ER, Steele PD, Lashley E. 1991. What are people really eating? The relation between energy intake de- rived from estimated diet records and intake determined to maintain body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 54:291–295. Neville MC, Keller R, Seacat J, Lutes V, Neifert M, Casey C, Allen J, Archer P. 1988. Studies in human lactation: Milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 48:1375–1386. NRC (National Research Council). 1986. Nutrient Adequacy. Assessment Using Food Consumption Surveys. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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1326 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Nusser SM, Carriquiry AL, Dodd KW, Fuller WA. 1996. A semiparametric transfor- mation approach to estimating usual daily intake distributions. J Am Stat Assoc 91:1440–1449. Perloff BP, Rizek RL, Haytowitz DB, Reid PR. 1990. Dietary intake methodology. II. USDA’s Nutrient Data Base for Nationwide Dietary Intake Surveys. J Nutr 120:1530–1534. WHO (World Health Organization). 2002. The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding. Report of an Expert Consultation. WHO/NHD/01.09. Geneva: WHO. Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. 1985. Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food fre- quency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 122:51–65. Ibid., Chapter 3, p. 72. Dourson ML, Stara JF. 1983. Regulatory history and experimental support of un- certainty (safety) factors. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 3:224–238. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 1982. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contami- nants. Twenty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No. 683. Geneva: WHO. FAO/WHO. 1995. The Application of Risk Analysis to Food Standard Issues. Recom- mendations to the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 95/9, Ap- pendix 5). Geneva: WHO. Health Canada. 1993. Health Risk Determination—The Challenge of Health Protection. Ottawa: Health Canada, Health Protection Branch. Hill AB. 1971. Principles of Medical Statistics, 9th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J. 1986. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan. Mertz W, Abernathy CO, Olin SS. 1994. Risk Assessment of Essential Elements. Wash- ington, DC: ILSI Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Acad- emy Press. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1993. Researching Health Risks. Washing- ton, DC: Office of Technology Assessment. WHO (World Health Organization). 1987. Principles for the Safety Assessment of Food Additives and Contaminants in Food. Environmental Health Criteria 70. Geneva: WHO. WHO. 1996. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: WHO. Zielhuis RL, van der Kreek FW. 1979. The use of a safety factor in setting health- based permissible levels for occupational exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 42:191–201.

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1327 O NLINE REFERENCES Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (ISBN 0-309-08537-3), Chapter 4, pp. 105–106. Dourson ML, Stara JF. 1983. Regulatory history and experimental support of uncertainty (safety) factors. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 3:224–238. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 1982. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contami- nants. Twenty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No. 683. Geneva: WHO. FAO/WHO. 1995. The Application of Risk Analysis to Food Standard Issues. Recom- mendations to the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 95/9, Appendix 5). Geneva: WHO. Health Canada. 1993. Health Risk Determination—The Challenge of Health Protection. Ottawa: Health Canada, Health Protection Branch. Hill AB. 1971. Principles of Medical Statistics, 9th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J. 1986. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan. Mertz W, Abernathy CO, Olin SS. 1994. Risk Assessment of Essential Elements. Wash- ington, DC: ILSI Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Acad- emy Press. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1993. Researching Health Risks. Washing- ton, DC: OTA. WHO (World Health Organization). 1987. Principles for the Safety Assessment of Food Additives and Contaminants in Food. Environmental Health Criteria 70. Geneva: WHO. WHO. 1996. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: WHO. Zielhuis RL, van der Kreek FW. 1979. The use of a safety factor in setting health- based permissible levels for occupational exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 42:191–201.

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1328 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES APPENDIX E Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (ISBN 0-309-08537-3) http://newton.nap.edu/catalog/10490.html APPENDIX F Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (ISBN 0-309-06350-7) http://newton.nap.edu/catalog/5776.html Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (ISBN 0-309-08537-3) http://newton.nap.edu/catalog/10490.html Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (ISBN 0-309-06411-2) http://newton.nap.edu/catalog/6015.html Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (ISBN 0-309-07290-5) http://newton.nap.edu/catalog/10026.html Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (ISBN 0-309-06949-1) http://newton.nap.edu/catalog/9810.html Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (ISBN 0-309-09158-6) http://newton.nap.edu/catalog/10925.html

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1329 O NLINE REFERENCES APPENDIX G Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (ISBN 0-309-07290-5) http://newton.nap.edu/catalog/10026.html APPENDIX H Please see the following Web site for a list of all Dietary Reference Intakes reports: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/dri/ APPENDIX I Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment (ISBN 0-309-07183-6) http://newton.nap.edu/catalog/9956.html

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