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INTRODUCTION 69 PART II ENERGY, MACRONUTRIENTS, WATER, AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY P art II of this publication takes information from the DRI reports titled Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005) and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005) and presents nutrient reference values for carbohydrates, fiber, fatty acids, protein, amino acids, and water, as well as recommendations for energy, fat, cholesterol, and physical activity. “Macronutrients, Healthful Diets, and Physical Activity” begins with a re- view of the available data regarding the relationships of carbohydrates, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids, collectively known as macronutrients, and physical activity and energy to major chronic diseases. It will introduce the term Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR), which is a range of intake for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. AMDRs are set for fat, carbohydrate, protein, and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. “Energy” introduces the term Estimated Energy Requirement (EER), which is defined as the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy individual of a defined age, gender, height, weight, and level of physical activity consistent with good health. “Physical Activity” provides recommendations for levels of physical activity associated with a nor- mal body mass index and reduced risk of chronic disease. The remaining chap- ters discuss data on carbohydrates (sugars and starches), fiber, fats and fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids, and water. In these chapters, AIs are provided for Total Fiber, linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid, and water, and EARs and RDAs are provided for carbohydrate, and protein. No ULs were set for any of the macronutrients or for water.