HISPANICS AND THE FUTURE OF AMERICA

Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, Editors

Panel on Hispanics in the United States

Committee on Population

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Hispanics and the Future of America HISPANICS AND THE FUTURE OF AMERICA Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, Editors Panel on Hispanics in the United States Committee on Population Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Hispanics and the Future of America THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, TO #123 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Cancer Institute, the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health; the U.S. Census Bureau; the National Center for Health Statistics; the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the California HealthCare Foundations, and the California Endowment. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hispanics and the future of America / Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, editors ; Panel on Hispanics in the United States [and] Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. p. cm. ISBN 0-309-10051-8 (pbk.)—ISBN 0-309-65478-5 (PDFs) 1. Hispanic Americans—Social conditions. 2. Hispanic Americans—Economic conditions. 3. United States—Ethnic relations. 4. Hispanic Americans—Statistics. 5. United States—Population. I. Tienda, Marta. II. Mitchell, Faith. III. National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Hispanics in the United States. IV. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Population. E184.S75H593 2006 305.868’073—dc22 2005034173 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2006 by the National Academies. All rights reserved. Cover credit: Freddy Rodriguez, Until When/Hasta Cuando (1991) Copyright by the artist; used with permission. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2006). Hispanics and the Future of America. Panel on Hispanics in the United States. Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, eds. Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Hispanics and the Future of America THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Hispanics and the Future of America PANEL ON HISPANICS IN THE UNITED STATES MARTA TIENDA (Chair), Department of Sociology, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and Office of Population Research, Princeton University LOUIS DeSIPIO, Department of Political Science and Chicano/Latino Studies Program, University of California, Irvine JORGE DURAND, Social Anthropology, University of Guadalajara, Mexico JOSÉ J. ESCARCE, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA and RAND, California V. JOSEPH HOTZ, Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles NANCY S. LANDALE, Department of Sociology, Pennsylvania State University CORDELIA W. REIMERS, Department of Economics, Hunter College and the Graduate School, City University of New York RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT, Department of Sociology and Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine BARBARA SCHNEIDER, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago EDWARD TELLES, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles STEVEN J. TREJO, Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin PETER WARD, Department of Sociology, University of Texas at Austin* National Research Council Staff BARNEY COHEN, Director, Committee on Population FAITH MITCHELL, Senior Program Officer ANA-MARIA IGNAT, Senior Program Assistant** ANTHONY S. MANN, Senior Program Assistant AMY GAWAD, Research Associate*** *   Until January 2004 **   Until November 2004 ***   Until December 2004

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Hispanics and the Future of America COMMITTEE ON POPULATION KENNETH W. WACHTER (Chair), Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley ANNE C. CASE, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University CHARLES B. KEELY, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University DAVID I. KERTZER, Department of Anthropology, Brown University BARTHÉLÉMY KUATE DEFO, Department of Demography, University of Montreal CYNTHIA B. LLOYD, Policy Research Division, Population Council, New York THOMAS W. MERRICK, Center for Global Health, George Washington University RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT, Department of Sociology and Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine JAMES W. VAUPEL, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany ROBERT J. WILLIS, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan BARNEY COHEN, Director

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Hispanics and the Future of America Acknowledgments The sponsors of this project recognized the timeliness of a study on Hispanics and in doing so made possible a far-reaching and provoking look at the nation’s fastest-growing minority population. We gratefully acknowledge support of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Cancer Institute, the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health; the U.S. Census Bureau; the National Center for Health Statistics; the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the California HealthCare Foundations, and the California Endowment. Along with this volume, their support resulted in a committee report, Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future, for which this is a companion volume. We also acknowledge the following individuals for their workshop presentations and other contributions to the material in this volume: Jorge Del Pinal, Patricia Fernández-Kelly, Claudia Galindo, John Gallegos, Eugene Garcia, Roberto Gonzalez, John Iceland, J. Gerardo Lopez, Maria Lopez-Freeman, Elizabeth Martin, Jeff Morenoff, Charles V. Morgan, Chandra Muller, Jeff Passel, Yasmin Ramirez, Sean Reardon, Catherine Riegle-Crumb, Jerry Valadez, William A. Vega, Bruce Western, and Marilyn Winkleby. The papers in this volume have been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Com-

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Hispanics and the Future of America mittee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of one or more papers in this volume: Frank D. Bean, Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine; Bruce E. Cain, Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley; Janet Currie, Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles; Rodolfo de la Garza, Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, Columbia University; Nancy A. Denton, Center for Social and Demographic Analysis, University at Albany, SUNY; Reynolds Farley, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan; Eugene E. Garcia, College of Education, Arizona State University; James S. House, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan; Wendy D. Manning, Center for Family and Demographic Research, Bowling Green State University; Eliseo Perez-Stable, General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Richard Santos, Department of Economics, University of New Mexico; William A. Vega, Behavioral and Research Training Institute, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; John R. Weeks, International Population Center, San Diego State University; and David R. Williams, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Although the reviewers listed have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of any of the papers nor did they see the final version of any paper before this publication. The review of this volume was overseen by Charles Hirschman, Department of Sociology, University of Washington. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the papers was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

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Hispanics and the Future of America Contents 1   Introduction: E Pluribus Plures or E Pluribus Unum? Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell   1 2   The Making of a People Rubén G. Rumbaut   16 3   The Demographic Foundations of the Latino Population Jorge Durand, Edward Telles, and Jennifer Flashman   66 4   Redrawing Spatial Color Lines: Hispanic Metropolitan Dispersal, Segregation, and Economic Opportunity Mary J. Fischer and Marta Tienda   100 5   Hispanic Families in the United States: Family Structure and Process in an Era of Family Change Nancy S. Landale, R. Salvador Oropesa, and Cristina Bradatan   138 6   Barriers to Educational Opportunities for Hispanics in the United States Barbara Schneider, Sylvia Martinez, and Ann Owens   179

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Hispanics and the Future of America 7   Hispanics in the U.S. Labor Market Brian Duncan, V. Joseph Hotz, and Stephen J. Trejo   228 8   Economic Well-Being Cordelia Reimers   291 9   The Health Status and Health Behaviors of Hispanics José J. Escarce, Leo S. Morales, and Rubén G. Rumbaut   362 10   Access to and Quality of Health Care José J. Escarce and Kanika Kapur   410 11   Latino Civic and Political Participation Louis DeSipio   447     APPENDIXES     A   Contents: Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future   481 B   Biographical Sketches of Contributors   484

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Hispanics and the Future of America HISPANICS AND THE FUTURE OF AMERICA

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