1. During air transport, animals must be observed at least once every 4 hr unless the cargo area is not accessible during flight, in which case the animals must be observed whenever they are loaded or unloaded to ensure sufficient air and acceptable ambient temperatures. If an animal is in obvious physical distress, veterinary care must be provided as soon as possible.

  2. During transportation, animals shall not be removed from their enclosure unless placed in another enclosure or facility that conforms to the appropriate AWA regulations.



  1. The primary enclosure must be strong enough to contain the animals securely and comfortably and to withstand the normal rigors of transportation.

  2. The enclosure must be large enough that each animal has enough space to turn around normally and to sit without its head touching the top of the enclosure. Larger species may be restricted in their movements when freedom of movement would be dangerous to the animals or people.

  3. The enclosure interior should not have sharp points, edges, or protrusions that could injure the animal.

  4. The animal must be securely contained in the enclosure and unable to put any part of its body outside the enclosure in a way that could result in injury to it, handlers, or other persons or animals.

  5. Openings of enclosures must be easily accessible at all times for emergency removal of animals.

  6. Openings of enclosure must be secure with animalproof devices that prevent accidental opening, including opening by nonhuman primates.

  7. Unless the enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, adequate handles or handholds must be provided so that it can be lifted without tilting and to ensure that anyone handling it will not come into physical contact with the animal in it.

  8. Ventilation openings should be covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal having air spaces.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement