Index

A

AAALAC. See Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International

AATA. See Animal Transportation Association

Academic researchers.

See also Responsible individuals

utilizing nonhuman primates, 82

Acclimation. See Thermal environment in the transportation of research animals

Adipsia, 54

Agencies

checking with beforehand, 11

that fund research, 84

Agents, that require registration of a facility with CDC, 67

Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), 28

(Agro)bioterrorism agents, 65

Air Cargo Tariff book, 23

Airlines, 4

commercial, 3

Allometric scaling, and implications for the transportation of research animals, 3839

Ambient temperature, ranges for safe transportation of common adult research animals, 48

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 63

Anesthesia, 61

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 14, 22

Animal rights activists, pressure from, 82

Animal Transportation Association (AATA), Manual for the Transportation of Live Animals, 33

Animal welfare, 45

investigators of, 45

Animal Welfare Act (AWA), 1214

dogs and cats, 97104

guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, and other animals, 110115

nonhuman primates, 104110

regulations pertaining to transportation, 50, 54, 87, 97115

Animal Welfare Regulations, 88

Animals

companion, 70, 78

cross-tying, 60

gnotobiotic, 76

immunocompromised, 76

lactating, 46

large, 3839, 58



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Index Ambient temperature, ranges for safe A transportation of common adult AAALAC. See Association for Assessment research animals, 48 and Accreditation of Laboratory American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Care International (AVMA), 63 AATA. See Animal Transportation Anesthesia, 61 Association Animal and Plant Health Inspection Academic researchers. See also Responsible Service (APHIS), 14, 22 individuals Animal rights activists, pressure from, 82 utilizing nonhuman primates, 82 Animal Transportation Association Acclimation. See Thermal environment in (AATA), Manual for the the transportation of research Transportation of Live Animals, 33 animals Animal welfare, 4–5 Adipsia, 54 investigators of, 4–5 Agencies Animal Welfare Act (AWA), 12–14 checking with beforehand, 11 dogs and cats, 97–104 that fund research, 84 guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, and Agents, that require registration of a other animals, 110–115 facility with CDC, 67 nonhuman primates, 104–110 Agreement on the Application of Sanitary regulations pertaining to transportation, and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS 50, 54, 87, 97–115 Agreement), 28 Animal Welfare Regulations, 88 (Agro)bioterrorism agents, 65 Animals Air Cargo Tariff book, 23 companion, 70, 78 Airlines, 4 cross-tying, 60 commercial, 3 gnotobiotic, 76 Allometric scaling, and implications for the immunocompromised, 76 transportation of research animals, lactating, 46 38–39 large, 38–39, 58 131

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132 INDEX late-pregnancy, 37, 46 Biomedical research enterprise, 1 live, CDC rules on the importation of, Biosafety in Microbial and Biomedical 18–20 Laboratories Manual (BMBL), 66, 71 natural enemies, 79 Biosecurity, 65–79 preconditioning, 59 protecting public health and segregation of, 71, 78–79 agricultural resources, 66–71 small, 38–39, 42, 56 protecting the biological integrity of Animals/animal products research animals and colonies, 71–79 with radioactive/poisonous material, Bioterrorism agents, 65 federal statutes/programs relevant Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response to the transportation of in the United Act, 66 States, 12–13 Bird flu, 19 with zoonotic/infectious diseases, BMBL. See Biosafety in Microbial and federal statutes/programs relevant Biomedical Laboratories Manual to the transportation of in the United Breeders, commercial, 7–8 States, 12–13 Anorexia, 54 C APHIS. See Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service California Department of Health Services, Aquatic Animal Health Code, 28 22 Association for Assessment and Candidate set for the facility-location Accreditation of Laboratory Animal problem, 121 Care International (AAALAC), 9 Care in transit Asymptomatic disease, 65, 69 for dogs and cats, 103–104 Autoclaving, 77 for guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, avoiding, 76 and other animals, 115 Avian influenza A (H5N1), 19, 28–29 for nonhuman primates, 109 Avian species, 84 Carriers, third-party, 9 AVMA. See American Veterinary Medical Cats. See Dogs and cats Association CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and AWA. See Animal Welfare Act Prevention Center for Veterinary Medicine, 22 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention B (CDC), 7, 18–20, 66, 71, 85n, 86 B virus, 70 agents and toxins that require Bacteria registration of a facility with, 67 requiring facility registration with CDC, Division of Global Migration and 67 Quarantine, 8–9, 12–13, 19 and the susceptible species of research Etiologic Agent Import Permit Program, animals, 74–75 12–13, 20 zoonotic diseases transmissible from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention research animals to humans, 69 (CDC) regulations and guidelines Barrier containment, 71, 76–77 for the transportation of research Bats, live, 20 animals, 18–20 Behavioral and physiological signs of importation and transportation of thermal status, 52 etiological agents, 20 Behavioral monitoring of thermal importation of live animals, 18–20 environment, 51 Certifications, 101, 107 Biocontainment, 88 CFR. See Code of Federal Regulations Biomedical research Checklist, of research animal regulations federal funding for, 7, 20 and guidelines, 31–32 use of nonhuman primates in, 24 Chicago, IL, 9

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133 INDEX Chico, CA, 123–126 Data sources, 118–119 CITES. See Convention on International Dehydration, 58 Trade in Endangered Species of Delays, 61 Wild Fauna and Flora Delivery to carriers and handlers Cleaning holding areas, 102, 108 for dogs and cats, 102 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 66 for guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, Colony security, 76 and other animals, 113–114 Commercial airlines, 3 for nonhuman primates, 107 Commercial breeders, 7–8 Designated ports for importation or Committee on Guidelines for the Humane exportation of wildlife or Transportation of Laboratory derivatives, 16 Animals, 6, 51, 87 DGMQ. See Division on Global Migration Companion animals, 70, 78 and Quarantine Compatibility DGRs. See Dangerous Goods Regulations for dogs and cats, 100–101 Disease, asymptomatic, 65, 69 for guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, Disinfection, 71, 77–78 and other animals, 112 chemical, 71 for nonhuman primates, 106 Division of Global Migration and Computation of distances, between Quarantine (DGMQ), 8–9, 9, 12–13, utilization points and supply 19 locations, 119 Documentation. See also Certifications Convention of the Council of Europe, 29 for dogs and cats, 101–102 Convention on International Civil Aviation, for guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, 25 and other animals, 113 Convention on International Trade in inconsistencies in, 88 Endangered Species of Wild Fauna for nonhuman primates, 107 and Flora (CITES), 12–13, 16, 23–25 of training of animal care personnel, 66 listed species of nonhuman primates, 26 Dogs and cats (9 CFR 3.13-3.19), 87–88, 97– Resolution Conf., 25 104 Conveyor belts, 103 care in transit, 103–104 Cool-acclimation, 47 compatibility, 100–101 Cool conditions, 58 delivery to carriers and handlers, 102 Core body temperature, 45 documentation, 101–102 Corporate research institutions, 82 enclosure, 97–100 Council of Europe, 27 federal statutes/programs relevant to Council Directives, 29–30 the transportation of in the United Courier pick ups, 9 States, 12–13 Cross contamination, 70, 78 food and water, 101 Cross-infection, 79 handling, 102–103 Cross-tying, 60 importing, 18 primary conveyance, 103 terminal facilities, 102 D DOT. See US Department of Transportation Dangerous goods, defining, 27 Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGRs), E IATA rules on, 27–28, 68 Data preparation, 118–119 EAIPP. See Etiologic Agent Import Permit computation of distances between Program utilization points and supply Ebola virus, 70 locations, 119 EDIM. See Group A rotavirus data sources, 118–119 Emergency procedures geocoding procedure, 119 elements of a plan for, 68

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134 INDEX in the transportation of research Federal statutes/programs relevant to the animals, 61 transportation of vertebrate research Enclosures, 110–112 animals and products in the United for dogs and cats, 97–100 States, 12–13 for guinea pigs, 111 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 12– for guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, 13, 21–22, 86 and other animals, 110–112 Center for Veterinary Medicine, 22 for hamsters, 111 Food and water for nonhuman primates, 104–106 for dogs and cats, 101 Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, 12– for guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, 13, 15–17, 23 and other animals, 112–113 listed species of nonhuman primates, 17 for nonhuman primates, 106 Endangered/threatened wildlife, federal providing when indicated, 21 statutes/programs relevant to the in the transportation of research transportation of in the United animals, 54–58 States, 13 Freedom of Information Act, 118n Environmental conditions, 10 Funding, for biomedical research, federal, 7 Environmental extremes, protecting Fungi, requiring facility registration with against, 21 CDC, 67 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 84 FWS. See US Fish and Wildlife Service Environmentally controlled trucks, 8–9 EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency G ESA. See Endangered Species Act of 1973 Escapes, dealing with, 61, 82 Gamma irradiation, 77 Etiologic Agent Import Permit Program GD-VII. See Theiler’s murine (EAIPP), 12–13, 20 encephalomyelitis virus strain Etiological agents, CDC rules on the Gel moisture sources, 57 importation and transportation of, Geocoding procedure, 119 20 Geographic information system (GIS), 119 European Union (EU), Health and Gnotobiotic animals, 71 Consumer Protection Directorate Good practices in the transportation of General, 27, 29–30 research animals, 33–63 Euthanasia, 61 allometric scaling and implication for Evaluation, 88 transportation practices, 38–39 Exemptions, 22 emergency procedures, 61 Export brokers, 23 food and water, 54–58 Extreme temperatures, exposure to, 61 handling, 59–60 monitoring transportation, 60 personnel training, 10, 61–63 F social interaction and group Facility location problem transportation, 59 candidate set for, 121 space allocation, 52–54 models for, 120–122 stress during transportation, 34–38 for the NIH grants data set (rodents), thermal environment, 39–52 122 Good shippers, characteristics of, 9 for the USDA cats data set, 124 Ground transportation, 3–4, 85 for the USDA dogs data set, 125 Group A rotavirus (EDIM), 72–73 Fasting, 58 Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural FDA. See Food and Drug Administration Animals in Agricultural Research and Federal Quarantine Regulations, regarding Teaching, 33 nonhuman primates, 19 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 21

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135 INDEX Guidelines. See Regulations and guidelines HPA. See Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal for the transportation of research axis response animals Husbandry, species-specific, 62 Guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, and Hydration, 57 other animals (9 CFR 3.35-3.41, 9 Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) CFR 3.60-3.65, 9 CFR 3.136-3.142), response, 37–38 87, 110–115 care in transit, 115 I compatibility, 112 delivery to carriers and handlers, 113– IATA. See International Air Transport 114 Association documentation, 113 ICAO. See International Civil Aviation enclosure, 110–112 Organization food and water, 112–113 ILAR. See Institute for Laboratory Animal handling, 114 Research primary conveyance, 115 Immunocompromised animals, 76 terminal facilities, 114 Importation sites, major, 9, 83 Incompatibilities, among export and import requirements, 23 H Inconsistencies, in documentation and Hamsters, 70, 111. See also Guinea pigs and reporting requirements, 87–88 hamsters, rabbits, and other animals Individuals at institutions, taking Handler training. See Personnel training responsibility, 5, 88 Handling Infectious agents and the susceptible dogs and cats, 102–103 species of research animals, 72–75, guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, and 88 other animals, 114 bacteria, 74–75 nonhuman primates, 108 parasites, 74–75 preconditioning animals to, 59 viruses, 72–73 in the transportation of research Infectious pathogens, risk of introducing, 65 animals, 59–60 Infectious substances, 20 Hantaan (HANT) virus, 72–73 Infectious Substances Program, 12–13 Hazardous Materials Information Center, 21 Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Hazardous Materials Regulation (HMR), (ILAR), 7 20–21, 25 Institutions, individuals at taking Health Research Extension Act of 1985, 21 responsibility, 5, 88 Helicobacter species, 71 Insurance rates, 82 High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) Interagency Primate Steering Committee, filters, 86 84 HMR. See Hazardous Materials Regulation Interagency working group, needed to Holding areas, cleaning and sanitizing, 102, coordinate all federal inspection and 108 permitting of animals, 51, 86–88 Homeotherms, 45–46, 51 International Air Transport Association graph representing relationship (IATA), 14 between metabolic rate and ambient International Air Transport Association temperature in, 42 (IATA) regulations and guidelines Host species, 65 for the transportation of research Hot conditions, 58. See also Thermal animals, 23–24, 27–28, 30, 50, 71 environment in the transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations, 27–28, research animals 68 Hot Springs, AR, 125–126 Live Animals Regulations, 14, 24, 27, 61, 78–79

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136 INDEX International Civil Aviation Organization solution set for the facility location (ICAO), 25–27 problem for the NIH grants data set International regulations for transporting (rodents), 122 research animals, 22–23 solution set for the facility location Irradiation, 77 problem for the USDA cats data set, Isolation, 59 124 solution set for the facility location problem for the USDA dogs data set, K 125 MCMV. See Murine cytomegalovirus Kilham Rat virus (KRV), 72–73 MHV. See Mouse hepatitis virus Mice, wild, 78 Microisolation shipping containers, 76 L Minimizing risks associated with transporting research animals with Laboratory Animal Science Association, experimentally introduced zoonoses, Report of the Transport Working 66–68 Group, 33 Minimizing risks associated with Lacey Act, 12–14, 18 transporting research animals with Lactating animals, 46 unknown zoonoses, 69–71 Lakewood, CO, 123 special considerations when LARs. See Live Animals Regulations transporting nonhuman primates, LCM. See Lymphocytic choriomeningitis 70–71 LCT. See Lower critical temperature special considerations when Listed Animal Permit Officials, 22 transporting specimens and tissues, Live Animals Regulations (LARs), IATA 71 rules on, 14, 24, 27, 61, 78–79 Minute virus of mice (MVM), 72–73 Livestock, stress experienced during Monitoring transportation, 37–38 behavioral, of thermal environment, 51 Livestock industry, 33 of the transportation of research Livestock Weather Safety Index, 46 animals, 60 Long-term housing, 52 Mouse adenovirus (MAD), 72–73 Los Angeles, CA, 9 Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), 72–73 Lower critical temperature (LCT), 44 Mouse parvovirus (Orphan parvovirus) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), 72– (MPV [OPV]), 71 73 Mouse thymic virus (MTLV), 72–73 MPV (OPV). See Mouse parvovirus M (Orphan parvovirus) MTLV. See Mouse thymic virus MAD. See Mouse adenovirus Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), 72–73 Malign hyperthermia, 48, 50 MVM. See Minute virus of mice Manual for the Transportation of Live Animals, 33 Maps N candidate set for the facility-location National Center for Infectious Diseases, 1, 7 problem, 121 National Center for Research Resources locations of research facilities using (NCRR), 3, 81 nonhuman primates, major National Institutes of Health (NIH), 1, 3, 7, importation sites, and vendors of 21, 66, 81 nonhuman primates in the United data from, 118 States, 83 research projects funded by, 85

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137 INDEX O National Primate Plan, 3, 81, 84 National Primate Research Center (NPRC), Office International des Épizooties (OIE), 3, 81, 84–85 28–29 National Science Foundation, 84 International Committee, 29 NCRR. See National Center for Research Office of Hazardous Materials, 20, 27 Resources Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare Newborns, 46 (OLAW), 21 NIH. See National Institutes of Health OIE. See Office International des Épizooties NIH grants data set (rodents), 120 OLAW. See Office of Laboratory Animal solution sets for the facility location Welfare problem for, 122 Orientation, preferred, 54 total weighted-system travel-distance Overcrowding, avoiding, 21 reduction with increase in supply Overshippers. See Self-contained points for, 123 overshippers Nonhuman primates (9 CFR 3.86-3.92), 15, 87–88, 104–110 academic researchers utilizing, 82 P care in transit, 109 compatibility, 106 Parasites, and the susceptible species of delivery to carriers and handlers, research animals, 74–75 107 Patterns in the ground transportation of documentation of, 107 research animals in the United enclosures for, 104–106 States, 117–126 encouraging more airlines to transport, background, 117 4 data preparation, 118–119 Federal Quarantine Regulations empirical results, 120–126 regarding, 19 quantitative analysis, 119–120 federal statutes/programs relevant to Performance standards, science-based, 34 the transportation of in the United Permitting Requirements under CITES, 25 States, 12 Personal protective equipment (PPEs), 70– food and water, 106 71, 76, 78 handling, 108 Personnel training, 10 isolating, 79 documenting, 66, 76 locations of research facilities using, high cost of, 3, 82 83 standard program for, 63 options available for transporting in the transportation of research between research facilities, 9 animals, 61–63 ports involved, 9 Pharmaceutical Research and primary conveyance, 109 Manufacturers of America registering importers of, 20 (PhRMA), 7 special considerations when PHMSA. See Pipeline and Hazardous transporting, 70–71 Materials Safety Administration stress experienced during PhRMA. See Pharmaceutical Research and transportation, 37 Manufacturers of America terminal facilities, 107–108 PHS. See Public Health Service use in biomedical research, 24 PHS Policy. See Policy on the Humane Care NPRC. See National Primate Research and Use of Laboratory Animals Center Physical distress Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, observing, 15, 103–104, 109 58 protecting against, 21

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138 INDEX Q Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), 20, 27 Quantitative analysis, 119–120 Associate Administrator for Hazardous Quarantine procedures, 22, 77, 79, 88 Materials Safety, 20 Hazardous Materials Information Center, 21 R Office of Hazardous Materials, 20, 27 Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), 72–73 Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), 72–73 Poikilotherms, 50 Rabbits, 70. See also Guinea pigs and Policy on the Humane Care and Use of hamsters, rabbits, and other animals Laboratory Animals, 21 Rabies, 18 Post-transportation recovery times, 36 Radioactive/Poisonous Materials Program, PPEs. See Personal protective equipment 12–13 Preconditioning animals, 59 Rat parvovirus (Orphan parvovirus) (RPV Predators of wildlife, Federal statutes/ [OPV]), 71 programs relevant to the Rats, federal statutes/programs relevant to transportation of in the United the transportation of in the United States, 13 States, 13 Pregnant animals, 37, 46 Recommendations, 3–5, 81–88 Primary conveyance animal welfare, 4–5 for dogs and cats, 103 declining availability of air for guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, transportation for nonhuman and other animals, 115 primates, 3–4 for nonhuman primates, 109 interagency working group needed to Principles of thermoregulation, 39–45 coordinate all federal inspection and Prions, requiring facility registration with permitting of animals, 51, 86–88 CDC, 67 National Primate Plan, updating and Private charters, covering the cost of, 82 reimplementing, 3, 81–85 Professional judgment, 47 regulatory burden, 4 Professional societies, 4 reliable ground transportation for Program evaluation, 88 nonhuman primates, collaboration Protecting public health and agricultural needed to establish, 4, 85 resources, 66–71 self-contained overshippers to ship minimizing risks associated with zoonotic animals, need to develop, 4, transporting research animals with 86 experimentally introduced zoonoses, shipments of research animals between 66–68 institutions, ensuring coordination minimizing risks associated with between responsible individuals at transporting research animals with both institutions, 5, 76, 88 unknown zoonoses, 69–71 Registered carriers, 9 Protecting the biological integrity of Regulations and guidelines for the research animals and colonies, 71–79 transportation of research animals, barrier containment, 76–77 11–32 disinfection, 77–78 complex and confusing, 4, 86–87 personal protective equipment, 78 compliance within, 11 segregation of animals, 78–79 international, 22–23 specific pathogen diagnosis, 77 national, 11–14 Protective equipment. See Personal Reovirus type 3 (REO 3), 72–73 protective equipment Report of the Transport Working Group Public Health Service (PHS), Policy on the Established by the Laboratory Humane Care and Use of Animal Science Association, 33 Laboratory Animals, 21 PVM. See Pneumonia virus of mice

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139 INDEX Reporting requirements, inconsistencies in, Space allocation in the transportation of 87–88 research animals, 52–54, 57 Researchers. See also Responsible for group-transported animals, 55–56 individuals Spatial isolation, 59 utilizing nonhuman primates, 82 Species-specific husbandry, 62 Responsible individuals, at institutions, 5, Specific-diagnostic diagnosis, 71 88 Specific pathogen diagnosis, 77 RHD. See Rabbit haemorrhagic disease Specimens, special considerations when Rodents, 3, 70, 118 transporting, 71 African, ban on importation of, 19 Spring Hill, FL, 123–124 stress experienced during SPS Agreement. See Agreement on the transportation, 36–37 Application of Sanitary and Ross River virus (RRV), 72–73 Phytosanitary Measures RPV (OPV). See Rat parvovirus (Orphan Staff turnovers, 63 parvovirus) State health and agricultural regulations, 22 RRV. See Ross River virus Sterilization, 76–77 Stocking density, 53 Stress during transportation, 34–38 S acute, 34, 36 chronic, 34 Safe temperature ranges during transport, livestock, 37–38 46–50 nonhuman primates, 37 San Francisco, CA, 9 rodents, 36–37 Sanitizing holding areas, 102, 108 Supply locations, 119 Science-based performance standards, 34 Sweating species, vs. nonsweating, 45 SDA/RCV. See Sialodacryoadentitis virus/ Rat corona virus Self-contained overshippers, to ship T zoonotic animals, need to develop, 4, 70–71, 79, 86 Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Shipping companies, 10. See also Carriers Dangerous Goods by Air, 25, 27 Shipping company, characteristics of a Temperatures. See also Ambient good, 68 temperature Shipping containers, 10. See also Self- core body, 45 contained overshippers exposure to extreme, 61 Shipping routes and destinations, 9, 120 safe ranges during transport, 46–50 Short-term exposures, 47 Terminal facilities Sialodacryoadentitis virus/Rat corona for dogs and cats, 102 virus (SDA/RCV), 72–73 for guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 72– and other animals, 114 73 for nonhuman primates, 107–108 Social animals and species, 59 temperatures in, 87 Social interaction and group transportation, Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 28 in the transportation of research Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus animals, 59 strain (GD-VII), 72–73 Solitary animals and species, 59 Thermal environment in the transportation Solution sets for the facility location of research animals, 39–52 problem behavioral monitoring of, 51 for the NIH grants data set (rodents), effect of transportation caging on, 50–51 122 exposure to extreme temperatures, 61 for the USDA cats data set, 124 principles of thermoregulation, 39–45 for the USDA dogs data set, 125

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140 INDEX safe temperature ranges during US Department of Agriculture (USDA), 14, transport, 46–50 71, 85n, 86, 88, 97, 113 thermal acclimation, 47, 51–52, 102–103 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Thermogenesis, 48 Service, 14, 22 nonshivering vs. shivering, 43 Animal Welfare Act, 12–13 Thermoneutral zone (TNZ), 39, 42–48 data from, 118 changes in (range of ambient is at a US Department of Defense, 84 minimum) with age and size in US Department of Health, Education, and chickens, 43 Welfare, 84 of various agricultural animals, 44 US Department of Justice, 66 Thermoregulation data, on common US Department of Transportation (DOT), research animal species, 40–41 20–21, 25, 68, 86 Third party carriers, 9 Infectious Substances Program, 12–13 Tissues, special considerations when Pipeline and Hazardous Materials transporting, 71 Safety Administration, 20, 27 TNZ. See Thermoneutral zone Radioactive/Poisonous Materials Total weighted-system travel-distance Program, 12–13 reduction with increase in supply US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 14–18, points 27, 85n, 86 for NIH grants data set (rodents), 123 CITES, 12–13, 16, 23 for USDA cats data set, 123 Endangered Species Act, 12–13, 15–17, for USDA dogs data set, 126 23 Toxins that require registration of a facility Lacey Act, 12–14, 18 with CDC, 67 Permit Website, 16 Trade, defining, 23 USA Patriot Act, 66 Training. See Personnel training USDA. See US Department of Agriculture TransCAD®, 119 USDA cats data set Transport of Dangerous Goods, United solution sets for the facility location Nations recommendations for, 25 problem for, 124 Transportation of animals total weighted-system travel-distance phases of, 34 reduction with increase in supply between research facilities, checklist of points for, 123 issues to consider when arranging, USDA dogs data set 10 solution sets for the facility location stressors in research animals, 34–38 problem for, 125 Treasury and General Government total weighted-system travel-distance Appropriations Act of 2002, 84 reduction with increase in supply Truck routes, 120 points for, 126 Turtles, importing, 18–19 Utilization points, 119 U V UCT. See Upper critical temperature Vendors of nonhuman primates in the United Nations, recommendations for the United States, 83 Transport of Dangerous Goods, 25 data on, 118 United States, vendors of nonhuman Ventilation, 102, 108 primates in, 83 Vertebrates, warm-blooded, federal Upper critical temperature (UCT), 42, 44, 46 statutes/programs relevant to the US Cities Geographic Information System, transportation of in the United 119 States, 13

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141 INDEX Veterans Administration, 84 Water bottles, 57 Veterinary care, 61, 87, 101, 103–104, 109, Wild mice, infected, 78 115 Wildlife Viruses defining, 15 B, 70 federal statutes/programs relevant to Ebola, 70 the transportation of in the United monkeypox, 22 States, 13 requiring facility registration with CDC, Working groups. See Interagency working 67 group; Report of the Transport and the susceptible species of research Working Group Established by the animals, 72–73 Laboratory Animal Science zoonotic diseases transmissible from Association research animals to humans, 69 World Animal Health Organization, 28–29 Visual isolation, 59 Z W Zoonotic diseases, 3, 9, 28 Warm-blooded vertebrates, federal controlling, 86 statutes/programs relevant to the risk of, 21, 82 transportation of in the United suspected, 88 States, 13 transmissible from research animals to Washington Convention. See Convention humans, 69 on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

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