transportation: the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), which details specific standards for animal care during transportation, and the Lacey Act, which provides that wildlife be transported in accordance with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animals Regulations (LARs).


The AWA provides standards for the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of animals (AWA, 7 USC 2131 et seq.). AWA regulatory authority is vested in the Secretary of Agriculture and implemented by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). With the exception of rats of the genus Rattus and mice of the genus Mus, bred specifically for research purposes, as well as all birds, and livestock or poultry used for improving animal nutrition, breeding, management, production efficiency, or food or fiber quality, the AWA regulates the transportation of all warm-blooded animals intended for use in research, teaching, or testing (9 CFR 1.1). That regulation applies to transportation of AWA-covered species within the United States, as well as their transportation on foreign air carriers traveling into, within, or from the United States, its territories or possessions, or the District of Columbia (Federal Register, Vol 69, No 66, pages 17899–17901).

With regard to the transportation of animals, the act contains standards for consignment (delivery of animals to an entity for transport), primary transportation enclosure, primary conveyance, food and watering requirements during transportation, terminal facilities, care in transit, and handling. The AWA contains standards for different groups of similar species, with separate rules for transporting dogs and cats, guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, nonhuman primates, marine mammals, and all other covered warm-blooded animals. The AWA standards are rather extensive and pertain directly to animal welfare. They are summarized in Appendix B for ease of use.


The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) regulates the importation, exportation, and interstate trade of dead and live wild animals and their tissues and products imported into or exported1 from the United States


Wildlife (including parts and products) that are in transit through the United States from one foreign country to another foreign country are exempt provided that the wildlife stays in the United States only for the time needed to transfer the specimen to the mode of transportation used to continue to the final destination and remain under control of Customs and Border Protection. Wildlife that is listed as injurious (Part 16), endangered or threatened

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