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Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals References AAALAC International. 2003. Overcoming the challenges of animal transport. AAALAC International Connection. AATA. 2000. AATA Manual for the Transportation of Live Animals, 2 ed. Surrey, England: Harris Associates Limited. Abbott, T.A., H.J. Guise, E.J. Hunter, R.H.C. Penny, P.J. Baynes, and C. Easby. 1995. Factors influencing pig deaths during transit: an analysis of drivers’ reports. Animal Welfare 4:29-40. Adams, T. 1963. Mechanisms of cold acclimatization in the cat. Journal of Applied Physiology 18:778-80. Adams, T., M.L. Morgan, W.S. Hunter, and K.R. Holmes. 1970. Temperature regulation of the unanesthetized cat during mild cold and severe heat stress. Journal of Applied Physiology 29(6):852-8. Aguila, H.N., S.P. Pakes, W.C. Lai, and Y.S. Lu. 1988. The effect of transportation stress on splenic natural killer cell activity in C57bl/6J mice. Laboratory Animal Science 38(2):148-51. American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). 2002. A Report from the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Air Transportation Study Group. Baldock, N.M., and R.M. Sibly. 1990. Effects of handling and transportation on the heart rate and behaviour of sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 28:15-39. Barlow, S.M., P.R. McElhatton, and F.M. Sullivan. 1975. The relation between maternal restraint and food deprivation, plasma corticosterone, and induction of cleft palate in the offspring of mice. Teratology 12(2):97-103. Baxter, S. 1984. Intensive Pig Production. London: Granada Press. Bayliss, P.A., and M.H. Hinton. 1990. Transportation of broilers with special reference to mortality rates. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 28:93-118. Besch, E.L., and R.L. Brigmon. 1991. Adrenal and body temperature changes in rabbits exposed to varying effective temperatures. Laboratory Animal Science 41(1):31-4. Besch, E.L., H. Kadono, and R.L. Brigmon. 1984. Body temperature changes in dogs exposed to varying effective temperatures. Laboratory Animal Science 34(2):177-80.
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Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals Bligh, J., and K.G. Johnson. 1973. Glossary of terms for thermal physiology. Journal of Applied Physiology 35(6):941-61. Brody. 1945. Bioenergetics and Growth. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation. Brown, K.S., M.C. Johnston, and J.D. Niswander. 1972. Isolated cleft palate in mice after transportation during gestation. Teratology 5:119-24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2001. Tularemia—Oklahoma, 2000. MMWR 50(33):704-6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2004. Order of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services. [Online.] Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/pdf/order_civet_ban_011304.pdf. [accessed September 2005]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2005a. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant salmonella typhimurium associated with rodents purchased at retail pet stores—United States, December 2003-October 2004. MMWR 54(17):429-33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2005b. Interim guidance for minimizing risk for human lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection associated with rodents. MMWR 54(30):747-9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2005c. Nonhuman Primate Imports FY 2001-2004. Unpublished raw data. Cohen, J.I., D.S. Davenport, J.A. Stewart, S. Deitchman, J.K. Hilliard, L.E. Chapman, and B Virus Working Group. 2002. Recommendations for prevention of and therapy for exposure to B virus (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1). Clinical Infectious Diseases 35(10):1191-203. Cole, N., T.H. Camp, L.D. Rowe, D.G. Stevens, and D.P. Hutcheson. 1988. Effect of transport on feeder calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 49:178-83. Collins, M.N., T.H. Friend, F.D. Jousan, and S.C. Chen. 2000. Effects of density on displacement, falls, injuries and orientation during horse transportation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67:169-79. Cooper, K.E., A.V. Ferguson, and W.L. Veale. 1980. Modification of thermoregulatory responses in rabbits reared at elevated environmental temperatures. Journal of Physiology 303:165-72. Crookshank, H.R., M.H. Elissalde, R.G. White, D.C. Clanton, and H.E. Smalley. 1979. Effect of transportation and handling of calves upon blood serum composition. Journal of Animal Science 48:430-5. Curtis, S.E. 1983. Environmental Management in Animal Agriculture. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press. del Barrio, A.S., J.W. Schrama, W. van der Hel, H.M. Beltman, and M.W.A. Verstegen. 1993. Energy metabolism of growing pigs after transportation, regrouping, and exposure to new housing conditions as affected by feeding level. Journal of Animal Science 71:1754-60. DeMarcus, T. 2003. Nonhuman primate importation and quaratnine: United States, 1981-2001. In: International Perspectives: The future of nonhuman primate resources. NRC. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW). 1978. National Primate Plan. Washington, DC: DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 80-1520. Depocas, F., J.S. Hart, and O. Heroux. 1957. Energy metabolism of the white rat after acclimation to warm and cold environments. Journal of Applied Physiology 10(3):393-7. DePoyster, J. 2003. Transportation of primates and the animal welfare act. Pp. 183-6. In: International Perspectives: The future of nonhuman primate resources. NRC. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Dhabhar, F.S., and B.S. McEwen. 1996. Stress-induced enhancement of antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity. Journal of Immunology 156(7):2608-15.
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Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals Dhabhar, F.S., and B.S. McEwen. 1997. Acute stress enhances while chronic stress suppresses cell-mediated immunity in vivo: a potential role for leukocyte trafficking. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity 11(4):286-306. Dhabhar, F.S., and B.S. McEwen. 2001. Bidirectional effects of stress & glucocorticoid hormones on immune function: possible explainations for paradoxical observations. In: Psychoneuroimmunology, 3rd edition. R. Ader, D. L. Felten, and N. Cohen, eds. San Diego: Academic Press. Drozdowicz, C.K., T.A. Bowman, M.L. Webb, and C.M. Lang. 1990. Effect of in-house transport on murine plasma corticosterone concentration and blood lymphocyte populations. American Journal of Veterinary Research 51(11):1841-6. Dymsza, H.A., S.A. Miller, J.F. Maloney, and H.L. Foster. 1963. Equilibration of the laboratory rat following exposure to shipping stresses. Laboratory Animal Care 13(1):60-5. Eldridge, G.A., C.G. Winfield, and D.J. Cahill. 1988. Responses of cattle to different space allowances, pen sizes and road conditions during transport. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 28:155. Federation of Animal Science Societies (FASS). 1999. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching, 1st revised ed. Savoy, IL: FASS. Fewell, J.E., M. Kang, and H.L. Eliason. 1997. Autonomic and behavioral thermoregulation in guinea pigs during postnatal maturation. Journal of Applied Physiology 83(3):830-6. Friend, T.H. 2000. Dehydration, stress, and water consumption of horses during long-distance commercial transport. Journal of Animal Science 78:2568-80. Friend, T.H. 2001. A review of recent research on the transportation of horses. Journal of Animal Science 79(Suppl. E):E32-40. Friend, T.H., M.T. Martin, D.D. Householder, and D.M. Bushong. 1998. Stress responses or horses during a long period of transport in a commercial truck. Journal of the American Medical Association 212:838-44. Fuller, M.F. 1969. Climate and growth. In: Animal Growth and Nutrition. E.S.E. Hafez and I.A. Dyer, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger. Gartner, K., D. Buttner, K. Dohler, R. Friedel, J. Lindena, and I. Trautschold. 1980. Stress response of rats to handling and experimental procedures. Laboratory Animals 14(3):267-74. Gasser, D.L., L. Mele, D.D. Lees, and A.S. Goldman. 1981. Genes in mice that affect susceptibility to cortison-induced cleft palate are closely linked to Ir genes on chromosomes 2 and 17. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 78(5):3147-50. Goldstein, D.S. 1995. Stress, Catecholamines, and Cardiovascular Disease. New York: Oxford University Press. Good, A.L., and A.F. Sellers. 1957. Effects of carbon dioxide, epinephrine and ilidar on skin, blood and rectal temperatures of unanesthetized dogs exposed to extreme cold. American Journal of Physiology 188(3):451-5. Gordon, C. 1985. Relationship between autonomic and behavioral thermoregulation in the mouse. Physiology & Behavior 34(5):687-90. Gordon, C.J. 1987. Relationship between preferred ambient temperature and autonomic thermoregulator function in rat. American Journal of Physiology 252(21):R1130-7. Gordon, C.J. 1988. Simultaneous measurement of preferred ambient temperature and metabolism in rats. American Journal of Physiology 254(23):R229-34. Gordon, C.J. 1990. Thermal biology of the laboratory rat. Physiology & Behavior 47(5):963-91. Gwosdow, A.R., and E.L. Besch. 1985. Effect of thermal history on the rat’s response to varying environmental temperature. Journal of Applied Physiology 59(2):413-9. Hahn, G.L. 1999. Dynamic responses of cattle to thermal heatloads. Journal of Animal Science 77(Suppl. 2):10-20.
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Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals Harada, E., and T. Kanno. 1975. Rabbit’s ear in cold acclimation studied on the change in ear temperature. Journal of Applied Physiology 38(3):389-94. Hayssen, V. 1998. Effect of transatlantic transport on reproduction of agouti and nonagouti deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus. Laboratory Animals 32(1):55-64. Heetkamp, M.J., J.W. Schrama, W.G. Schouten, and J.W. Swinkels. 2002. Energy metabolism in young pigs as affected by establishment of new groups prior to transport. Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition-Zeitschrift Fur Tierphysiologie Tierernahrung Und Futtermittelkunde 86(5-6):144-52. Hensel, H., and M. Banet. 1982. Adaptive changes in cats after long-term exposure to various temperatures. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental & Exercise Physiology 52(4):1008-12. Herrington, L.P. 1939. The Heat Regulation of Small Laboratory Animals at Various Environmental Temperatures. John B. Pierce Laboratory, Connecticut. Herrington, L. 1940. The heat regulation of small laboratory animals at various environmental temperatures. American Journal of Physiology 129:123-39. Himms-Hagen, J., J. Triandafillou, N. Begin-Heick, M. Ghorbani, and A.L. Kates. 1995. Apparent lack of beta 3-adrenoceptors and of insulin regulation of glucose transport in brown adipose tissue of guinea pigs. American Journal of Physiology 268(1 Pt 2):R98-104. Honda, N., W.V. Judy, and L.D. Carlson. 1962. Effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline on ear vessels in cold- and warm-adapted rabbits. Journal of Applied Physiology 17:754-8. Horton, G.M. 1981. Responses of shorn and full-fleeced lambs given two levels of feed intake and exposed to warm and cold temperatures. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42(12):2151-4. Huttunen, P. 1982. Hypothalamic catecholamines and tolerance for severe cold in ethanol-treated guinea-pigs. British Journal of Pharmacology 75(4):613-6. Huynh, T.T.T., A.J.A. Aarnink, M.W.A. Verstegen, W.J.J. Gerrits, M.J.W. Heetkamp, B. Kemp, and T.T. Canh. 2005. Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidities. Journal of Animal Science 83:1385-96. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 2005. Live Animals Regulations, 32 ed. IATA. Irwin, M. 1994. Stress-induced immune suppression: role of brain corticotropin releasing hormone and autonomic nervous system mechanisms. Advances in Neuroimmunology 4(1):29-47. Jacoby, R.O., and R. Lindsey. 1998. Risks of infection among laboratory rats and mice at major biomedical research institutions. ILAR Journal 39(4):266-71. Johnson, G.S., and R.S. Elizondo. 1979. Thermoregulation in macaca mulatta: a thermal balance study. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental & Exercise Physiology 46(2):268-77. Jones, S.B., X.J. Musacchia, and G.E. Temple. 1976. Mechanisms of temperature regulation in heat-acclimated hamsters. American Journal of Physiology 231(3):707-12. Kannan, G., and J.A. Mench. 1996. Influence of different handling methods and crating periods on plasma corticosterone concentrations in broilers. British Poultry Science 37:21-31. Kenny, F.J., and P.V. Tarrant. 1987. The physiological and behavioral responses of cross-bred Friesen steers to short-haul transport by road. Livestock Production Science 17:63-75. Kent, J.E., and R. Ewbank. 1983. The effect of road transportation on the blood constituents and behavior of calves. I. Six months old. The British Veterinary Journal 139:228-35. Kent, J.E., and R. Ewbank. 1986a. The effect of road transportation on the blood constituents and behavior of calves. I. Three months old. The British Veterinary Journal 142:326-35. Kent, J.E., and R. Ewbank. 1986b. The effect of road transportation on the blood constituents and behavior of calves. II. One to three weeks old. The British Veterinary Journal 142:131-40.
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Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., L. McGuire, T.F. Robles, and R. Glaser. 2002. Emotions, morbidity, and mortality: new perspectives from psychoneuroimmunology. Annual Review of Psychology 53:83-107. Knowles, T.G., and D.M. Broom. 1990. The handling and transport of broilers and spent hens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 28:75-91. Knowles, T.G., P.D. Warriss, S.N. Brown, and J.E. Edwards. 1999. Effects on cattle of transportation by road for up to 31 hours. The Veterinary Record 145:575-82. Knowles, T.G., S.N. Warriss, S.N. Brown, J.E. Edwards, P.E. Watkins, and A.J. Phillips. 1997. Effects on calves less than one month old of feeding or not feeding them during road transport of up to 24 hours. The Veterinary Record 140:116-24. Kreger, M., and M. Farris. 2003. International transportation of nonhuman primates: US fish and wildlife service perspective. In: International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources. NRC. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Lambooy, E., and B. Hulsegge. 1988. Long-distance transport of pregnant heifers by truck. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 20:249-58. Landi, M.S., J.W. Kreider, C.M. Lang, and L.P. Bullock. 1982. Effects of shipping on the immune function in mice. American Journal of Veterinary Research 43(9):1654-7. Lapworth, J. 2004. Beef cattle transport by road: pre transport management. Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. Queensland Government, Brisbane Australia. Lindstedt, L., and P.J. Schaeffer. 2002. Use of allometry in predicting anatomical and physiological parameters of mammals. Laboratory Animals 36(1):1-19. Livestock Conservation Institute. 1970. Patterns of Transit Losses. Omaha, NE: Livstock Conservation, Inc. Maher, J.A., and T. Schub. 2004. Laboratory rodent transportation supplies. Lab Animal 33(8):29-32. Malaga, C.A., R.E. Weller, E. Montoya, J. Moro, and R.L. Buschbom. 1991. Mortality and body weight changes in Aotus nancymai shipped from Iquitos, Peru to Richland, Washington. Journal of Medical Primatology 20(1):6-11. Marahrens, M., I. Von Richthofen, S. Schmeiduch, and J. Hartung. 2003. Special problems of long-distance road transports of cattle. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 110(3):120-5. McEwen, B.S. 2002. The End of Stress As We Know It. Washington, DC: Dana Press/Joseph Henry Press. McGlone, J., and W.G. Pond. 2003. Pig Production: Biological Principles and Applications. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Publishers. McGlone, J.J., J.L. Salak, E.A. Lumpkin, R.I. Nicholson, M. Gibson, and R.L. Norman. 1993. Shipping stress and social status effects on pig performance, plasma cortisol, natural killer cell activity, and leukocyte numbers. Journal of Animal Science 71(4):888-96. Morgan, K. 1998. Thermoneutral zone and critical temperatures of horses. Journal of Thermal Biology 23(1):59-61. Mormede, P., J. Soissons, R. Bluthe, J. Raoult, G. Legarff, D. Levieux, and R. Dantzer. 1982. Effect of transportation on blood serum composition, disease incidence, and production traits in young calves. Influence of the journey duration. Annales De Recherches Veterinaires 13(4):369-84. Nagasaka, T., and L.D. Carlson. 1965. Responses of cold- and warm-adapted dogs to infused norephinephrine and acute body cooling. American Journal of Physiology 209(1):227-30. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2002. NCRR Fact Sheet. Bethesda, MD: NIH. National Research Council (NRC). 1981. Effect of Environment on Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: