information technology, or some other technological advancement. Such issues as procurement, calibration, validation, data collection, and data interpretation remain vital to successful implementation of new tools and technologies.

We conclude that many of the most important tools for achieving major advances in geoengineering are likely to come from forward-looking, creative, and inspired individuals working alone or with one or two colleagues in related disciplines. We urge, therefore, that NSF increase its investments in this type of research, including especially the support of a greater proportion of projects that may be classified as high risk but high reward.

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