retain the broadest possible pool of engineers, enriching its traditional pool of students, and ultimately practitioners, with the nontraditional engineer, its educational practices, its professional registration practices, and its commitment to invest in diversity.

The competitive edge of a diverse engineering workforce has been established by Land of Plenty, the Report of the Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (CAWMSET, 2000), but commitment both by the engineering profession and by educational institutions has waned. That report, confirmed by results of Cook and King’s study (2004, pp. 14-15, 39) identifies broad action items to advance this agenda. Two things are clear: (1) continuing the efforts in effect now will not advance us to the next level of success; and (2) passive acceptance of these presently underrepresented groups in the profession is not sufficient to attract and retain them, nor does it maximize their contributions to the profession. In terms of maximizing results from measures undertaken in colleges and universities, the data of 30 years of NSF programs may be a rich resource to begin to understand what new measures should be undertaken to support advancement toward those goals, especially if evaluation of programs in other agencies and in other developed countries is included in that study. It is beyond the scope of this report to evaluate and recommend measures to be implemented, however the urgency for new efforts is clear. The composition of the industry workforce still does not represent the composition of society as a whole. Renewed effort and innovative approaches are required to create a diverse geoengineering workforce representative of the general population.


This chapter spelled out some of the institutional issues associated with achieving our vision for geoengineering in the twenty-first century and makes recommendations for actions NSF can take to overcome some of the barriers created by these issues. The role played by other groups in

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