realizing this vision, including professional societies and various sectors of the geoengineering industry, is also addressed herein. The leadership of each group has already awakened to the realization that the vibrancy of the geoengineering profession depends on innovation. The 2004 ASCE Body of Knowledge report opens with a quote from William Jennings Bryan: “Destiny is not a matter of chance, it is a matter of choice.” The committee embraces this philosophy for geoengineering.

NSF, the sponsor of this study, is unrivalled in its capacity to explore, support, and lead in initiatives that can (and have) enriched the profession. NSF has been influential in developments in geoengineering and it will have an even greater role in the foreseeable future. Universities are key players because of their responsibility for much of geoengineering research and education. Universities must dedicate themselves to innovation in interdisciplinary inquiry in order to address both continuing and new challenges in geoengineering; and they will need flexibility and resources to experiment with new approaches in education that will not only change what geoengineering graduates know and how they think about problems, but as importantly, who will choose to study and practice geoengineering. Geoengineering practitioners have the opportunity to make geoengineering a leadership profession in engineering. Bold projects that address pervasive societal imperatives will attract excellent practitioners and daring students.

This agenda requires fresh thinking and serious commitment to change on the part of each group. The first step has already been achieved: The leadership of each group has recognized that more of the same will not move the profession forward. The catalysts for change are new opportunities for breakthroughs and new compelling problems on which to work.

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