Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon

Committee on Review of Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Research and Restoration Plan for Salmon

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Polar Research Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon Committee on Review of Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Research and Restoration Plan for Salmon Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Polar Research Board Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract No. IHP-03-093 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Cover photo courtesy of Yukon Archives, Claude B. Tidd Collection. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10107-7 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF AYK (WESTERN ALASKA) RESEARCH AND RESTORATION PLAN FOR SALMON Members THOMAS ROYER (Chair), Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA LAMONT E. ALBERTSON, Wilderness Experiences, Aniak, AK ELIZABETH ANDREWS,1 Port Townsend, WA RONALD K. DEARBORN, Fairbanks, AK CRAIG FLEENER, Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments, Fort Yukon, AK ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University, East Lansing NICHOLAS HUGHES, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks CYNTHIA M. JONES, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA KATHERINE W. MYERS, University of Washington, Seattle ROSAMOND LEE NAYLOR, Stanford University, Stanford, CA JENNIFER RUESINK, University of Washington, Seattle ROY A. STEIN, Ohio State University, Columbus Staff DAVID POLICANSKY, Project Director MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Associate JOHN BROWN, Program Associate JORDAN CRAGO, Senior Program Assistant ALEXANDRA STUPPLE, Senior Editorial Assistant Sponsor ALASKA STATE DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME 1   Dr. Andrews left the committee on October 9, 2005, to become director of the Subsistence Division of ADF&G

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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD RAMON ALVAREZ, Environmental Defense, Austin, TX JOHN M. BALBUS, Environmental Defense, Washington, DC THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD DALLAS BURTRAW, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC JAMES S. BUS, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI COSTEL D. DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark E. DONALD ELLIOTT, Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP, Washington, DC J. PAUL GILMAN, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN SHERRI W. GOODMAN, Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, VA JUDITH A. GRAHAM, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA DANIEL S. GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA WILLIAM P. HORN, Birch, Horton, Bittner and Cherot, Washington, DC ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University (emeritus), East Lansing JAMES H. JOHNSON, JR., Howard University, Washington, DC JUDITH L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens PATRICK Y. O’BRIEN, ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA DOROTHY E. PATTON, International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, DC STEWARD T.A. PICKETT, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY DANNY D. REIBLE, University of Texas, Austin JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, VA ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY KIMBERLY M. THOMPSON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MONICA G. TURNER, University of Wisconsin, Madison MARK J. UTELL, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY CHRIS G. WHIPPLE, ENVIRON International Corporation, Emeryville, CA LAUREN ZEISE, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor

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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon POLAR RESEARCH BOARD Members ROBIN BELL (Chair), Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY JAMES E. BERNER, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK DAVID BROMWICH, The Ohio State University, Bryd Polar Research Center, Columbus CALVIN ROBERT CLAUER, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JODY W. DEMING, University of Washington School of Oceanography, Seattle ANDREW G. FOUNTAIN, Portland State University, Portland, OR RICHARD GLENN, Arctic Slope Regional Corporation, Barrow, AK JACKIE GREBMEIER, University of Tennessee, Knoxville SVEN D. HAAKANSON, Alutiiq Museum, Kodiak, AK LAWRENCE HAMILTON, University of New Hampshire, Durham LARRY HINZMAN, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks DAVID KARL, University of Hawaii, Honolulu STEPHANIE PFIRMAN, Barnard College, New York, NY DIANA HARRISON WALL, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins JOHN WALSH, University of Alaska, Fairbanks International Arctic Research Center, Fairbanks JAMES WHITE, University of Colorado, Department of Geological Sciences, Boulder WARREN M. ZAPOL, M.D., Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston Ex-Officio MAHLON C. KENNICUTT II (U.S. Delegate to SCAR), Texas A&M University, College Station PATRICK WEBBER (U.S. Delegate to IASC), Michigan State University, East Lansing TERRY WILSON (Alternate U.S. Delegate to SCAR), Ohio State University, Columbus Staff CHRIS ELFRING, Director SHELDON DROBOT, Study Director RACHAEL SHIFLETT, Senior Program Assistant ANDREAS SOHRE, Financial Associate

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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005) Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005) Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (4 volumes, 2000-2004) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (4 volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (5 volumes, 1989-1995) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 volumes, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu

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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon Contents     SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   3      Background,   3      Stakeholder Groups and the AYK SSI,   4      The Present Study,   5      Report Organization,   6 2   GENERAL COMMENTS   7 3   THE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK   11      Implementation of Research Framework,   11      An Example of Deriving Research Questions from a Hypothesis,   20      Additional Suggestions for the Research Plan,   21 4   CAPACITY BUILDING   23      Educational Capacity Building,   24      Collaborative Research Program for Capacity Building,   25 5   SPECIFICS OF THE RESEARCH AND RESTORATION PLAN   27      Scientific and Administrative Leadership,   28      Biological Escapement Goals,   30      Data and Data Management,   31      LTK and the AYK,   31

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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon 6   SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   34     REFERENCES   38 APPENDIX A   Summary from First Report   40 APPENDIX B   Biographic Information on the Committee   54

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