In 2001 the new presidential administration reviewed U.S. climate change policy. Its review included another request to the National Academies to help identify “the areas in the science of climate change where there are the greatest certainties and uncertainties” and to provide “views on whether there are any substantive differences between the IPCC reports and the IPCC summaries.” In response the NRC published Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions (NRC, 2001a). Days after receiving the report President George W. Bush announced the creation of the new Climate Change Research Initiative (CCRI). In his announcement the President directed that priorities be established for climate change research, including a focus on identifying the scientific information that can be developed within two to five years to assist the nation in the development of strategies to address global change risks. The President also called for improved coordination among federal agencies to assure that research results are made available to all stakeholders, from national policy leaders to local resource managers.
In February 2002 President Bush announced the formation of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a new management structure that would incorporate the work of the GCRP and the newly launched CCRI. The CCSP is intended to be a single interagency committee responsible for the entire range of science projects sponsored by the two programs.2 The Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere was named director of the CCSP. The interagency CCSP retains the responsibility for compliance with the requirements of the Global Change Research Act of 1990, including its provisions for annual reporting of findings and short-term plans, scientific reviews by the National Academies, and periodic publication of a 10-year strategic plan for the program. At the same time a Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) was created to coordinate and develop interagency research efforts focused on developing new technologies related to climate change and its mitigation. The Assistant Secretary of Energy for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy was named the director of the CCTP. As illustrated in Figure 1-1, oversight for both the CCSP and the CCTP is provided by the Interagency Working Group on Climate Change Science and Technology, which in turn reports to a high-level Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration.
The initial activities of the CCSP included an inventory of global change research activities at the 13 participating agencies. The fiscal year 2002 budget included $1670 million officially part of the GCRP plus an additional $1210 million in related and supporting research activities