for all developing countries. Modeled on the Indian Institutes of Technology, the first institute is expected to open in Tanzania in 2007 and will offer undergraduate and graduate degrees in science, engineering, economics, and management. The aim is to attract as many African Ph.D.s working abroad as possible.179


Although providing no more than a high level survey of current trends in the globalization of advanced technologies in the life sciences, the data provided in this chapter do provide evidence that both basic and cutting-edge life sciences technologies are highly dispersed worldwide, and will continue to become more so in the near-term future. The drivers for this are several and vary by nation and region. Developing countries recognize the potential of novel technologies to boost their economies, promote their development, and enhance their regional standing. Turner T. Isoun, Nigeria’s minister of science and technology, has observed that “developing countries will not catch up with developed countries by investing in existing technologies alone. [In order] to compete successfully in global science today, a portion of the science and technology budget of every country must focus on cutting-edge science and technologies.”180 This statement, echoing the aspirations of many lesser developed countries, has important implications for the future dispersion of knowledge in the global life sciences community. The trends are profound and well rooted.



For most of the core reagents for DNA synthesis, there are no longer any significant U.S. suppliers. As a result, DNS synthesis technology is being “off-shored” to countries with lower labor costs at least as fast as the technology is being developed. This trend can only be expected to escalate in the coming years.




Jimenez-Sanchez, G. 2003. Developing a platform for genomic medicine in Mexico. Science 300(5617):295-296.



Institute of Medicine/National Research Council. 2005. An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.


For more detailed discussion of the national genomic medicine initiative in Mexico and Singapore’s genomic medicine and other biotechnology initiatives, see Institute of Medicine/National Research Council. 2005. An International Per-

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