See www.swri.org/4org/d01/microenc/microen/default.htm [accessed May 12, 2005].


Randall, P. and S. Chattopadhyay. 2004. Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes. Journal of Hazardous Materials 114(1-3):211-223.


Hao, S. et al. 2005. A novel approach to tumor suppression using microencapsulated engineered J558/TNF-alpha cells. Experimental Oncology 27(1):56-60.


Weinbreck, F. et al. 2004. Microencapsulation of oils using whey protein/gum Arabic coacervates. Journal of Microencapsulation 21(6):667-679.


Yamaguchi, Y. et al. 2005. Successful treatment of photo-damaged skin of nano-scale atRA particles using a novel transdermal delivery. Journal of Controlled Release 104(1):29-40.


See www.advancedbionutrition.com/html/news_press.html#2005_5 [accessed May 12, 2005].


Chang, T.M. 2005. Therapeutic applications of polymeric artificial cells. Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery 4(3):221-235; and Orive, G. et al. 2004. History, challenges and perspectives of cell microencapsulation. Trends in Biotechnology 22(2):87-92.


A new technology, which will allow weapons and vehicles to be released from submarines even if they were not originally designed for undersea use.


Izumikawa, M. et al. 2005. Auditory hair cell replacement and hearing improvement by Atoh1 gene therapy in deaf mammals. Nature Medicine 11(3):271-276.


Parsons, D. 2005. Airway gene therapy and cystic fibrosis. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 41(3):94-96.


Although “convergent technology” is a common term often used to refer to the convergence of specific types of technologies, we use it here loosely to refer to the convergence of any technologies.


Benenson, Y. et al. 2004. An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression. Nature 429(6990):423-429.


Kagan, E. 2001 Bioregulators as instruments of terror. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 21(3): 07-618. See also, Wheelis, M. 2004. Will the new biology lead to new weapons? Arms Control Today 34(July/August):6-13; and Dando, M. 1999. Biotechnology, Weapons, and Humanity British Medical Association. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, especially Chapter 4 on “Genetic weapons.” See also Dando, M. 1996. A New Form of Warfare: The Rise of Non-Lethal Weapons. Dullas, VA: Potomac Books, Inc., especially Chapter 8: “An assault on the brain?” and Chapter 5: “Lethal and non-lethal chemical agents.”




Nixdorff, K. and W. Bender. 2002. Ethics of university research, biotechnology and potential military spin-off. Minerva 40:15-35. See also Nixdorff, K., N. Davison, P. Millett, and S. Whitby. 2004. Technology and biological weapons: Future threats. Science and Technology Report, Number 2, University of Bradford, Department of Peace Studies. Available online at www.brad.ac.uk/acad/sbtwc/ST_Reports/ST_Report_No_2.pdf [accessed January 5, 2006].

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