For a discussion of the laws and regulations in the United States governing the handling and control of biological materials and the rules governing who may or may not work with these materials, please see National Research Council, 2004, Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism. Washington DC: The National Academies Press; Chapter 2.


Daar, A.S. and P.A. Singer. 2005. Biotechnology and Human Security. In: Helsinki Process Papers on Human Security. Foreign Ministry’s Publications: Helsinki:120-162. Available online at www.utoronto.ca/jcb/home/documents/Biotech_human_security.pdf [accessed January 6, 2006].


UN Millennium Project Task Force on Science, Technology and Innovation. 2005. Innovation: Applying knowledge to development. London: Earthscan.


Kellman, B. The global bargain for biosecurity. Unpublished manuscript distributed to committee (June 2004).




This description of the mammalian innate and adaptive immune systems is adapted from Kathryn Nixdorff, briefing to the Committee at the Committee’s International Workshop. Institute of Medicine/National Research Council. 2005. An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 44-49. Available online at www.nap.edu/catalog/11301.html.


See www.promedmail.org.


Jackson, R.J. et al. 2001. Expression of mouse interleukin-4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox. Journal of Virology 75(3):1205-1210.


Linux is a free Unix-type operating system. See www.linux.org.


Young, H.P. 1998. Individual Strategy and Social Structure: An Evolutionary Theory of Institutions. Princeton: Princeton University Press; Axelrod, R. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books; Axelrod. R. 1986. An Evolutionary Approach To Norms. American Political Science Review 80(4):1095-1111; Epstein, J.M. 2001. Learning to be Thoughtless: Social Norms and Individual Competition. Computational Economics 18:9-24.


Fox, J.A. and A.R. Piquero. 2003. Deadly demographics: Population characteristics and forecasting homicide trends. Crime & Delinquency 49(3):339-359.


National Research Council. 2004. Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. 2002. Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; Institute of Medicine. 2003. Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NIAID Blue Ribbon Panel on Bioterrorism and Its Implications for Biomedical Research, February 2002. More information on the NIAID Blue Ribbon Panel is available online at www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/btbluribbon.htm [accessed January 6, 2006].


Chyba, C.F. 2001. Biological Terrorism and Public Health. Survival 43(Spring):93-106.


Prevention is a cornerstone of public health. Just as mosquito netting can be used to prevent the spread of malaria, the built environment can be used to minimize risks of exposure to airborne biological agents. See www.cdc.gov/niosh/bldvent/2002-139.html#foreward;

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