chair of the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine, and recently chaired an Institute of Medicine study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats.

David A. Relman, M.D. co-chair, is an associate professor of medicine (infectious diseases and geographic medicine) and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, and chief of the Infectious Diseases Section at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California. Dr. Relman received his B.S. degree in biology from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his medical degree from Harvard Medical School. He completed his residency in internal medicine and a clinical fellowship in infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, after which he moved to Stanford as a research fellow and postdoctoral scholar. He joined the Stanford faculty in 1994. His major focus is laboratory research directed toward characterizing the human endogenous microbial flora, host-microbe interactions, and identifying previously-unrecognized microbial pathogens, using molecular and genomic approaches. He has described a number of new human microbial pathogens. Dr. Relman’s lab ( is currently exploring human oral and intestinal microbial ecology, sources of variation in host genome-wide expression responses to infection and during states of health, and how Bordetella species (including the agent of whooping cough) cause disease. He has published over 150 peer-reviewed articles, reviews, editorials and book chapters on pathogen discovery and bacterial pathogenesis. Dr. Relman has served on scientific program committees for the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and advisory panels for NIH, CDC, the Departments of Energy and Defense, and NASA. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the IDSA, the Board of Scientific Counselors at NIDCR/NIH, and the Forum on Microbial Threats at the Institute of Medicine. He received the Squibb Award from IDSA in 2001, the Senior Scholar Award in Global Infectious Diseases from the Ellison Medical Foundation in 2002, and is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.

Roy Anderson, Ph.D., FRS, is professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Head of the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, University of London. Roy Anderson is a fellow of the Royal Society and a Foreign Member of the Institute of Medicine at the US National Academy of Sciences. He has published over 400 scientific papers on the epidemiology, population biology, evo-

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