Jackson, R.J. et al. 2001. Expression of mouse interleukin-4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox. Journal of Virology 75(3):1205-1210.


Cello, J. et al. 2002. Chemical synthesis of poliovirus cDNA: generation of infectious virus in the absence of natural template. Science 297(5583):1016-1018.


Rosengard, A.M. et al. 2002. Variola virus immune evasion design: Expression of a highly efficient inhibitor of human complement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(13):8808-8813.


Fraser, C.M. and D.R. Dando. 2001. Genomics and future biological weapons: The need for preventive action by the biomedical community. Nature Genetics 29(3):253-256. See, also, National Research Council. 2004. Seeking Security: Pathogens, Open Access, and Genome Databases. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.


Arora, N. and S.H. Leppa. 1994. Fusions of anthrax toxin lethal factor with shiga toxin and diptheria toxin enzymatic domains are toxic to mammalian cells. Infection and Immunity 62(11):4955-4961.


Broad, W.J. 1998. Gene-engineered anthrax: Is it a weapon? New York Times (February 14): A4; Wade, N. 1998. Tests with anthrax raise fears that American vaccine can be defeated. New York Times (March 26).


Aldous, P. 2001. Biologists urged to address risk of data aiding bioweapon design. Nature 414(6861): 237-238 as cited in Zilinskas, R.A. and J.B. Tucker. 2002. Limiting the contribution of the open scientific literature to the biological weapons threat. Journal of Homeland Security. Available online at www.homelandsecurity.org/journal/Articles/tucker.html [accessed December 30, 2005].


Hatta, M., et al. 2001. Molecular basis for high virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A virus. Science 293(5536):1840-1842.


Gibbs et al. 2001. Recombination in the Hemagglutinin Gene of the 1918 ‘Spanish Flu.’ Science 293(5536):1842-1845.


Tumpey, T.M. et al. 2005. Characterization of the Reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Virus. Science 310(5745):77-80; Taubenberger, J.K. et al. 2005. Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Nature 437:889-893.


Boyce, N. 2002. Flu’s Worst Season. US News and World Report 133(6):50.


Wang, X.G. et al. 2001. Purified Cholera Toxin B Subunit from Transgenic Tobacco Plants Possesses Authentic Antigenicity. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 72(4):490-494.


Boyce, N. 2002. Should Scientists Publish Work that Could be Misused? US News and World Report 132(22): 60.


Wein, L.M. and Y. Liu. 2005. Analyzing a bioterror attack on the food supply: The case of botulinum toxin in milk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(28):9984-9989.


Berg, P. et al. 1975. Summary statement of the Asilomar Conference on recombinant DNA molecules.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 72(6): 1981-1984.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement