capital and goods, as reflected by the growing number of multinational business collaborations and global firms in the life sciences industry, global trends in biotechnology-related patents, and the globalization of consumerism and purchasing power;
knowledge, as reflected by the changing higher education landscape, the intercontinental movement of students, researchers and technology experts, the growing number of scientific publications authored by researchers outside of the United States, and trends in biotechnology-related patents; and
people, again reflected by the changing nature of the intercontinental movement of students, researchers, and life science professionals.
The following discussion is based on these three broad categories of drivers, or mega drivers, rather than on whether a driver is classified as economic, social, or political. Accordingly, the first half of this chapter summarizes evidence and patterns that reflect the increasingly important roles of the global expansion of capital and goods, knowledge, and people in shaping the global technology landscape. In particular, we survey the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, nanobiotechnology, agricultural, and industrial sectors of the global life sciences industry (which reflect the expanding global flow in capital and goods, knowledge, and people); summarize global scientific productivity, in terms of publication and citations in international journals and other indicators and recent biotechnology patent activity (both of which reflect the expanding global flow in knowledge and people); and highlight foreign student enrollment in U.S. graduate science and technology programs (which reflects the expanding global flow of knowledge and people).
The second half of this chapter includes a snapshot of the rapidly evolving global landscape for the creation, adoption, and adaptation of the advanced technologies discussed herein. This section is not intended to be comprehensive, but to illustrate the extent to which advanced technologies are being developed and disseminated worldwide, well beyond the borders of the G88 (i.e., Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States, and the Russian Federation). Highlighted regions and countries were selected on the basis of recent known investments in life science research and applied technologies, obvious indications that the countries are expanding their science and technology foundations, and publicized country efforts to become regional centers of excellence in technologies of interest to this study.