Mice, M, 40/group

Drinking water

10, 20 mg/kg/ day (NaF)

30 days

Epithelial-cell pyknosis and absence of luminal sperm were observed. Disorganization of germinal epithelial cells of seminiferous tubules with absence of sperm in the lumina. Reduction in denudation of cells, epithelial cell height, nuclear pyknosis, and absence of sperm observed in the cauda epididymis. The vas deferens epithelium showed clumped sterocilia, nuclear pyknosis, and cell debris but no sperm in the lumen and an increase in the lamina propria. Marked recovery was observed with withdrawal of treatment. No effects observed in the prostate gland or seminal vesicles.

Chinoy and Sequeira 1989

Mice, M, 20/group

Gavage

10, 20 mg/kg/day (NaF)

30 days

NaF caused lessened fertility rate when normal cycling female mice were mated with treated mice. Large numbers of deflagellated spermatozoa with acrosomal, midpiece, and tail abnormalities were observed. Significant recovery in sperm count, sperm motility, and fertility rate was observed after withdrawal of treatment for 2 months.

Chinoy and Sequeira 1992

Mice, M, 20/group

Gavage

10 mg/kg/day (NaF)

30 days

Alterations in epididymal milieu as elucidated by the significant decrease in concentrations of sialic acid and protein as well as activity of ATPase in epididymides. Significant decrease in body and epididymis weight. Weight of vas deferens and seminal vesicle were not affected. Sperm maturation process was affected, leading to decline in cauda epididymal sperm motility and viability. Significant reduction in fertility rate and cauda epididymal sperm count. Treatment induced substantial metabolic alterations in the epidymides, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles of mice. Supplements of vitamin D and E during the withdrawal period enhanced recovery of all NaF-induced effects.

Chinoy and Sharma 1998



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