Cows (Holstein; various states of lactation, 9-13 cows from each of 9 herds)

See also Table E-3

Feed supplements

1-22 mg/kg F in feed (estimated) (approximate doses, 0.03-0.7 mg/kg/day)d


Urinary fluoride ≥ 2.9 mg/L (range 1.04-15.7mg/L, average 5.13 mg/L).

Decreased T3, T4, cholesterol and increased eosinophils with increasing urinary fluoride (adjusted for stage of lactation); serum calcium correlated with T3 and T4.

Fluorosis herds (S1, C4, V3, B2) had lower T4 than herds W, B, M, G (P < 0.05).

Feeding of iodinated casein to herd B2 for 3 weeks resulted in 100% increase in milk production, increased hematopoiesis, reduced eosinophils, increased serum calcium, decreased serum phosphorus, and increase in serum T4 from 3.4 to 14.1 µg/dL.

TSH not measured.

Bone fluoride: mean, 2,400 ppm in ash (range, 850-6,935, 22 specimens from 8 herds).

Hillman et al. 1979

Rats (Wistar)

See also Table E-16

Drinking water and diet

Water: 0, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, or 200 mg/L Diet: 0.31 or 34.5 ppm (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day from water and 0.025 or 2.8 mg/kg/day from feed)e

54-58 days

Elevated T3 and T4 in rats on 1 mg/L in drinking water and low-fluoride diet.

Low T3 and normal T4 in rats on 1, 5, or 10 mg/L in drinking water and high-fluoride diet. Decreased TSH and GH in animals receiving 100 or 200 mg/L in drinking water.

Full details not available.

Hara 1980

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