Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report

Committee to Review and Assess the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report Committee to Review and Assess the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by a Master Services Agreement between the National Academy of Sciences and the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (awarded November 2004); Grant 1906 between the Barr Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences (awarded September 2004); and funding from the Connecticut Clean Energy Fund (awarded April 2005); the Kendall Foundation (awarded March 2005); and the U.S. Green Building Council (awarded February 2005). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10120-4 Copies of this report are available from the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 943, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3376. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report COMMITTEE TO REVIEW AND ASSESS THE HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF GREEN SCHOOLS JOHN D. SPENGLER, Harvard University, Chair VIVIAN E. LOFTNESS, Carnegie Mellon University, Vice Chair CHARLENE W. BAYER, Georgia Institute of Technology JOHN S. BRADLEY, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada GLEN I. EARTHMAN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University PEYTON A. EGGLESTON, Johns Hopkins University PAUL FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst CAROLINE BREESE HALL, University of Rochester GARY T. HENRY, Georgia State University CLIFFORD S. MITCHELL, Johns Hopkins University MARK S. REA, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute HENRY SANOFF, North Carolina State University CAROL H. WEISS, Harvard University SUZANNE M. WILSON, Michigan State University Staff LYNDA STANLEY, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment KEVIN LEWIS, Program Officer PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

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Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT HENRY J. HATCH, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia, Chair MASSOUD AMIN, University of Minnesota REGINALD DesROCHES, Georgia Institute of Technology DENNIS DUNNE, Consultant, Scottsdale, Arizona PAUL FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst LUCIA GARSYS, Hillsborough County, Florida WILLIAM HANSMIRE, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas THEODORE C. KENNEDY, BE&K, Inc. SUE McNEIL, University of Delaware DEREK PARKER, Anshen+Allen HENRY G. SCHWARTZ, JR., Washington University WILLIAM WALLACE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute CRAIG ZIMRING, Georgia Institute of Technology Staff LYNDA STANLEY, Director MICHAEL COHN, Program Officer KEVIN LEWIS, Program Officer DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

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Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report Acknowledgment of Reviewers This interim report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Karen Anderson, Florida Department of Health, William J. Fisk, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Robert E. Fullilove, Columbia University, Martin Moeck, Pennsylvania State University, and William Rose, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Henry W. Riecken, University of Pennsylvania, Emeritus, and Richard N. Wright, National Institute of Standards and Technology, retired. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   8      Green Schools Versus Conventional New Schools,   9      The Element of Time,   9      Modeling the Effects of Green Schools,   10      Complexity of the Task,   13      Committee’s Approach,   16      Findings,   19 2   BUILDING ENVELOPE, MOISTURE MANAGEMENT, AND HEALTH   20      Building Envelope and Moisture Management,   20      Excessive Moisture and Health,   21      Findings and Recommendation,   24 3   VENTILATION, POLLUTANT SOURCE CONTROL, HEALTH, AND PERFORMANCE   26      Indoor Air Quality and Pollutant Source Control,   27      Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation Rates,   28      Ventilation and Health,   30      Ventilation and Comfort,   31      Moisture Management in Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Systems,   31      Findings,   32 4   LIGHTING, PERFORMANCE, AND HEALTH   34      Lighting and Its Impact on the Visual and Circadian Systems,   35      Daylighting and Student Learning,   37      Lighting and the Circadian System,   39      Daylighting, View, Performance, and Health,   40      Findings and Recommendations,   40 5   NOISE, ACOUSTICS, STUDENT LEARNING, AND TEACHER HEALTH   42      Noise and Student Achievement,   43      Noise and Teachers’ Health,   45      Findings and Recommendation,   45 6   BUILDING CONDITION AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT   46      School Building Condition and Student Achievement,   47      School Building Functionality and Student Achievement,   50      Limitations of the Current Studies,   51      Finding and Recommendation,   51     REFERENCES   53

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Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report     APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS   64     ROLE OF THE BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT   69