• The Census Bureau’s Survey of Program Dynamics, fielded for five consecutive years beginning in 1998, included the 18-item food security module.

  • The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) included a subset of six questions (but not the standard six-item set) in the adult well-being module once during each panel beginning in 1998 (see Chapter 6 for further description of SIPP).

  • The Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS-K) and Birth Cohort of 2002 (ECLS-B), incorporated the HFSSM. ECLS-K and ECLS-B are longitudinal surveys of the U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics. ECLS-K follows a nationally representative sample of about 22,000 children from kindergarten to fifth grade (and likely beyond); ECLS-B follows a nationally representative sample of about 10,000 newborn children for their first several years.

  • The University of Michigan Panel Survey of Income Dynamics included the household food security survey module in a special supplement on women and children in 1997 and in the full sample beginning in 1999.

  • The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System included questions on food sufficiency in the social context module. Eight states collected the information at some point between 1996 and 1999.

A number of state surveys used all or a part of the HFSSM:

  • Oregon included the short six-item food security module in the Oregon Population Survey in 2000.

  • The California Health Interview Survey included the short six-item food security module beginning in 2001.

  • Welfare, Children and Families: A Three City Study was conducted in Boston, San Antonio, and Chicago. The study is a collaboration among several universities. It included limited food security and hunger questions, some of which appear to be taken directly from the Food Security Supplement.

  • The Wisconsin Food Security Survey in the WIC population included the six-item limited interview. The survey was translated into Spanish, Hmong, and Russian.

  • Iowa included the six-item food security module in a survey of WIC participants in English and Spanish beginning in 2003.



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