Nord (2005) used the 2002–2003 CPS Food Security Supplement panel to estimate the effect of food stamp program participation on food security status. That paper points to some of the inherent problems and suggests some directions for future research.

The Food Security Supplement

The Food Security Supplement to the CPS includes many questions in addition to the core HFSSM. As described in Chapter 2, it contains a battery of more than 70 questions regarding various aspects of household food use and experiences during the 30 days and 12 months prior to the interview. Appendix A contains the FSS questions (note: not all the follow-up questions are numbered in the set of questions shown in Appendix A). The FSS includes five major sections:

  1. Food expenditures.

  2. Minimum food spending needed.

  3. Food assistance program participation.

  4. Food sufficiency and food security (this section includes the 18 food security and hunger questions that are used to calculate the household food security scale).

  5. Ways of coping with not having enough food.

The content of the FSS varied somewhat in 1996 and 1997, and more substantial revisions in screening and format were introduced in 1998. As described in Chapter 2, households with incomes higher than 185 percent of the federal poverty line and who give no indication of problems with food access or adequacy on either of two preliminary screening questions are deemed to be food secure and are not asked subsequent questions. The two screening questions are:

  1. People do different things when they are running out of money for food in order to make their food or their food money go further. In the last 12 months, since December of last year, did you ever run short of money and try to make your food or your food money go further? (This is the first question in the food assistance program participation section in the FSS and Q. 12 in Appendix A.)

  2. Which of these statements best describes the food eaten in your household—enough of the kinds of food we want to eat, enough but not always the kinds of food we want to eat, sometimes not enough to eat, or often not enough to eat? (This is the first ques-



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