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Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, Glynn RJ, Berkman LF, Blazer DG, Scherr PA, Wallace RB. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: Association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 1994;49:M85-M94.

Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Salive ME, Wallace RB. Lower-extremity function in persons over the age of 70 years as a predictor of subsequent disability. New England Journal of Medicine 1995; Mar 2;332(9):556–561.

Guralnik JM, Ferrucci F, Pieper CF, Leveille SG, Markides KS, Ostir GV, Studenski S, Berkman LF, Wallace RB. Lower extremity function and subsequent disability: Consistency across studies, predictive models, and value of gait speed alone compared to the short physical performance battery. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2000;55:M221-231.


IOM (Institute of Medicine). Disability in America. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991.


Jette, AM. How measurement techniques influence estimates of disability in older populations. Social Science Medicine 1994; 38:937–942.


Leveille SG, Guralnik JM, Hochberg M, Hirsch R, Ferrucci L, Langlois J, Rantanen T, Ling S. Low back pain and disability in older women: independent association with difficulty but not inability to perform daily activities. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 1999; Oct;54(10):M487–M493.

Leveille SG, Ling S, Hochberg MC, Resnick HE, Bandeen-Roche KJ, Won A, Guralnik JM. Widespread musculoskeletal pain and the progression of disability in older disabled women. Annals of Internal Medicine 2001; Dec 18;135(12):1038–1046.


Nagi, S. Disability Concepts revisited: implications for prevention, pp. 309–327. In Disability in America. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1991.


Ostir GV, Volpato S, Fried LP, Chaves P, Guralnik JM. Women’s Health and Aging Study. Reliability and sensitivity to change assessed for a summary measure of lower body function: results from the Women’s Health and Aging Study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2002; Sep;55(9):916–921.


Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Deeg DJ, Wallace RB. Depressive symptoms and physical decline in community-dwelling older persons. Journal of the American Medical Association 1998; Jun 3;279(21):1720–1726.


Rejeski WJ, Fielding RA, Blair SN, Guralnik JM, Gill TM, Hadley EC, King AC, Kritchevsky SB , Miller ME, Newman AB, Pahor M. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) pilot study: Design and methods. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2005;26:141-54.


Stuck AE, Walthert JM, Nikolaus T, Bula CJ, Hohmann C, Beck JC. Risk factors for functional status decline in community-living elderly people: a systematic literature review. Social Science Medicine 1999; Feb;48(4):445–469.


Verbrugge LM, Jette AM. The disablement process. Social Science Medicine 1994; Jan;38(1):1–14.

Volpato S, Blaum C, Resnick H, Ferrucci L, Fried LP, Guralnik JM. Women’s Health and Aging Study. Comorbidities and impairments explaining the association between diabetes and lower extremity disability: The Women’s Health and Aging Study. Diabetes Care 2002; Apr;25(4):678–683.


WHO (World Health Organization). International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2001.



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