Glossary


Annotation1

Identification of the locations and coding regions of genes in a genome and determination of what they do.


Bioinformatics1

The study of genetic and other biological information using computer, mathematical, and statistical techniques.


Codon

A set of three adjoined nucleotides (triplet) that codes for an amino acid or a termination signal.


Functional genomics1

The study of genomes to determine the biological function of all the genes and their products.


Gene expression1

Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first to messenger RNA and then to a protein.

Genome1

The entire chromosomal genetic material of an organism.


Definitions taken from 1Science Vol. 291; 2NRC, 2003b; 3Handelsman, 2005b; 4NML, 2005; 5http://www.biochem.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/; 6http://www.medicine.net.com.



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OCR for page 67
Review of the Department of Energy’s Genomics: GTL Program Glossary Annotation1 Identification of the locations and coding regions of genes in a genome and determination of what they do. Bioinformatics1 The study of genetic and other biological information using computer, mathematical, and statistical techniques. Codon A set of three adjoined nucleotides (triplet) that codes for an amino acid or a termination signal. Functional genomics1 The study of genomes to determine the biological function of all the genes and their products. Gene expression1 Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first to messenger RNA and then to a protein. Genome1 The entire chromosomal genetic material of an organism. Definitions taken from 1Science Vol. 291; 2NRC, 2003b; 3Handelsman, 2005b; 4NML, 2005; 5http://www.biochem.northwestern.edu/holmgren/Glossary/; 6http://www.medicine.net.com.

OCR for page 67
Review of the Department of Energy’s Genomics: GTL Program Genomics1 The comprehensive study of whole sets of genes and their interactions rather than single genes or proteins. High throughput2 Rapid (and simultaneous) processing of large sample sets. Metabolomics2 The global analysis of metabolites and metabolic networks in cells, tissues, and organ systems. Metagenomics3 The genomic analyses of assemblages of uncultured microorganisms. Microarray2 A microscope slide or other solid support on which many distinct cDNAs or DNA oligonucleotides are patterned at high density in an addressable array. Microarrays are interrogated by hybridization to fluorescently labeled cDNAs or RNAs to detect the genes that are actively transcribed. Open reading frame4 A reading frame in a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that contains no termination codons and so can potentially translate as a polypeptide chain. PCR1 Polymerase chain reaction: a technique for amplifying a piece of DNA quickly and cheaply. Proteomics1 The study of full set of proteins encoded by a genome. Sequencing5 Determination of the order of nucleotides (base sequences) in a DNA or RNA molecule or the order of amino acids in a protein. Shotgun assembly1 Breaking DNA into many small pieces, sequencing the pieces, and assembling the fragments. Structural genomics1 The effort to determine the 3D structures of large numbers of proteins using both experimental techniques and computer simulation. Upregulation6 An increase in the number of receptors on the surface of target cells, making the cells more sensitive to a hormone or another agent.