ENGINEERING STUDIES AT TRIBAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES









NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES



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Engineering Studies at Tribal Colleges and Universities ENGINEERING STUDIES AT TRIBAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

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Engineering Studies at Tribal Colleges and Universities ENGINEERING STUDIES AT TRIBAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES Letter Report from the Steering Committee for Engineering Studies at the Tribal Colleges NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Engineering Studies at Tribal Colleges and Universities THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Academies, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the steering committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract WES04-24378-1230-56300 between Salish Kootenai College (supported by National Security Agency Grant #H98230-04-1-0099) and the National Academy of Engineering. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessary reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10127-1 A limited number of copies are available from: National Academy of Engineering Program Office 500 5th Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-2041 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth St., N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Engineering Studies at Tribal Colleges and Universities THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org

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Engineering Studies at Tribal Colleges and Universities STEERING COMMITTEE ON ENGINEERING STUDIES AT THE TRIBAL COLLEGES RICHARD SCHWARTZ, chair, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana ASHOK AGRAWAL, St. Louis Community College, Florissant Valley, Missouri SANDRA BEGAY-CAMPBELL, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico LEGAND BURGE, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama LARRY HALL, S&K Electronics, Ronan, Montana HELEN KLASSEN, Minnesota State University, Moorhead, Minnesota HENRI MANN, Montana State University-Bozeman, Bozeman, Montana Project Staff MARY MATTIS, Senior Program Officer NATHAN KAHL, Senior Program Assistant CAROL R. ARENBERG, Editor

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Engineering Studies at Tribal Colleges and Universities Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NAE in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: MICHAEL CORRADINI, University of Wisconsin-Madison DOMENICO GRASSO, University of Vermont ERIC JOLLY, Science Museum of Minnesota MARSHALL JONES, GE Global Research Center AL KUSLIKIS, American Indian Higher Education Consortium JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories PAUL SCHULTZ, Honorable Elder, Ogema, Minnesota Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lance Davis, NAE Executive Officer. He, appointed by the NAE, was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Engineering Studies at Tribal Colleges and Universities CONTENTS 1   Statement of Work   1 2   Introduction   3      Background,   3      Role of the National Academy of Engineering,   4 3   Opportunities and Challenges for Tribal Colleges and Universities   6      Opportunities,   7      Challenges,   8 4   Questions Addressed in This Study   12     1.   What unique qualities do American Indians bring to the practice of engineering?,   12     2.   What does incorporating cultural relevance into engineering studies mean? How can American Indian cultures be incorporated into modern engineering curricula?,   13     3.   What are the most effective ways of attracting and retaining American Indian students in engineering studies and motivating them to pursue advanced degrees? What are the most effective ways of motivating them to undertake careers in engineering?,   13     4.   What can tribal colleges offer American Indian constituencies that existing mainstream institutions cannot?,   18     5.   Do student and faculty exchange programs between tribal colleges and mainstream institutions, industry, and federal agencies give students an educational advantage?,   19     6.   What is the most appropriate model for the initiation, development, implementation, and sustainment of engineering studies at tribal colleges?,   20     7.   How can engineering studies be implemented so that continuous improvement is an integral part of the model?,   23     8.   Which financial strategies will enable tribal colleges to sustain engineering programs in the long term?,   25     9.   What are the most effective methodologies for teaching engineering at TCUs to meet the needs of Native American constituencies?,   26     10.   Can these methodologies be applied to instill a concept of lifelong learning?,   27 5   Recommendations   29     References   30     Appendixes     A   Biographies of Committee Members   37

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Engineering Studies at Tribal Colleges and Universities B   Workshop Agenda, March 15–16, 2005   40 C   Invited Experts and National Academy of Engineering Staff   42 D   National Science Foundation Programs at Tribal Colleges and Universities   43 E   Sources of Federal Funding for Tribal Colleges and Universities   45 F   American Indian Higher Education Consortium Statement on Engineering Initiatives at Tribal Colleges and Universities   47 G   Executive Order 13270   50 H   ABET Criteria for Accrediting Engineering Programs, General Criteria for Basic Level Programs   54 I   Management Plan of the Working Group   58