admonished, however, that a lack of money should not be used as an excuse for not moving forward.

This chapter begins with a summary of the workshop discussion on the economic, national security, and other factors responsible for the changing perception of international health. This is followed by a summary of presentations and comments regarding some of the sources of and concerns about increased funding for international public health. The Global Fund and the MCA were discussed in some detail. The participants also briefly discussed the potential public health role of interim debt relief. Despite the promises of new funds and potential sources of even more funding, participants expressed many concerns, particularly with regard to how the funds would be used and whether they would be sustainable. Questions about the role of money also led to a brief discussion regarding the relative value of evidence-based public health and good governance.

With regard to the newer approaches required for global infectious disease control, several different but overlapping ideas were discussed. In addition to the need for consortia of financiers, such as the Global Fund, which are bigger and more flexible than individual agencies, most of the discussion focused on the need for public–private collaborations among states, interstate and regional organizations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), multinational corporations, and various other nonstate actors. Not only does the increasingly interconnected world provide opportunities for public–private collaborative responses on an international scale never before possible, but the intensifying cross-border traffic of microbes characteristic of globalization also demands that this opportunity be seized.

Greater interaction and fluidity between the developed and developing worlds, as exemplified by the bidirectional training programs discussed in Chapter 3, were also identified as a vital component of any effort to improve global public health. Throughout the workshop, participants discussed the most effective and sustainable ways to approach and manage collaborations with institutions, governments, and other partners in the developing world. Although some of these comments were included in the discussion of multinational research and training initiatives in Chapter 3, others are presented here.

Most of the public–private and other partnerships discussed during the workshop have been or are being designed to address the urgent and critical public health needs of the developing world and other countries with particular needs, such as Russia. Thus there was some discussion of the need to continue addressing U.S. domestic public health needs as well, especially the rise of antimicrobial resistance. Another important component of global public health identified by participants was the concept of public health as a global public good, especially with regard to product development and the dissemination of knowledge. The former was touched upon during the



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