production of which falls to the public sector because private actors lack sufficient incentives or resources to do what is necessary to protect population health (Gostin, 2001). When globalization pressures a state, its governance response can occur within three different governance categories: national, international, and global (see Figure B-3).
National governance represents the efforts a state takes within its own territory and under its own laws to respond to globalization-related problems. International governance means that states engage in international cooperation among themselves to confront globalization challenges. International governance often involves the creation of norms, rules, and institutions to facilitate interstate cooperation. The policies and duties created through international governance then inform national governance. Global governance involves not only states and international institutions but also nonstate actors, such as multinational corporations (MNCs) and international non-