Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research

Report of a Workshop

Ad Hoc Committee on Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Research and Monitoring in Solar-Terrestrial Physics: A Workshop

Space Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research Report of a Workshop Ad Hoc Committee on Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Research and Monitoring in Solar-Terrestrial Physics: A Workshop Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ATM-0109283 and was also supported by Contract NASW-01001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project. Cover design by Monica A. Foster. Cover images: Front, top, left to right: (1) Digital portable sounder receiver array at Chilton, United Kingdom. Courtesy of Chris Davis, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. (2) Installation of SuperDARN SANAE high frequency radar located at Vesleskarvet, Antarctic. Courtesy of Hercules Olivier. (3) Installation of a low-power magnetometer at the South Pole. Courtesy of Robert Clauer, University of Michigan. Front, bottom: The aurora viewed from Alaska. Courtesy of Jan Curtis. Back, top: Distributed Global Positioning System receivers provide a snapshot of a tongue of ionization stretching over the north polar region. Superimposed on the total electron content image is the instantaneous pattern of high-latitude electric field, derived from observations with the distributed network of SuperDARN radars and the DMSP satellites. SOURCE: Foster et al., J. Geophys. Res. 110(A9): A09531, 2005. [See Box 2.1, p. 12.] Back, bottom: Computer representation of sound wave oscillations of the Sun. The helioseismology technique is at the heart of the program carried out by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG). SOURCE: Courtesy of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop Other Reports of the Space Studies Board The Astrophysical Context of Life (SSB with the Board on Life Sciences, 2005) Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation (2005) Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions (2005) Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars (2005) Principal-Investigator-Led Missions in the Space Sciences (2005) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion (SSB with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2005) Review of Goals and Plans for NASA’s Space and Earth Sciences (2005) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2005) Science in NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration (2005) Solar and Space Physics and Its Role in Space Exploration (2005) Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope: Final Report (SSB with ASEB, 2004) Exploration of the Outer Heliosphere and the Local Interstellar Medium: A Workshop Report (2004) Issues and Opportunities Regarding the U.S. Space Program: A Summary Report of a Workshop on National Space Policy (SSB with ASEB, 2004) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Review of Science Requirements for the Terrestrial Planet Finder: Letter Report (2004) Understanding the Sun and Solar System Plasmas: Future Directions in Solar and Space Physics (2004) Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (SSB with ASEB and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate [BASC], 2004) Assessment of NASA’s Draft 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Strategy: Letter Report (2003) Assessment of NASA’s Draft 2003 Space Science Enterprise Strategy: Letter Report (2003) Satellite Observations of the Earth’s Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (SSB with ASEB and BASC, 2003) Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2003) The Sun to the Earthand Beyond: Panel Reports (2003) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2002) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) The Sun to the Earthand Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) Limited copies of these reports are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3477/ssb@nas.edu www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html NOTE: Listed according to year of approval for release, which in some cases precedes the year of publication.

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Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop AD HOC COMMITTEE ON DISTRIBUTED ARRAYS OF SMALL INSTRUMENTS FOR RESEARCH AND MONITORING IN SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS: A WORKSHOP JAMES L. BURCH, Southwest Research Institute, Chair CLAUDIA ALEXANDER, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory VASSILIS ANGELOPOULOS, University of California, Berkeley ANTHONY CHAN, Rice University JAMES F. DRAKE, University of Maryland JOHN C. FOSTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology STEPHEN A. FUSELIER, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research CRAIG KLETZING, University of Iowa GANG LU, National Center for Atmospheric Research BARRY H. MAUK, Johns Hopkins University EUGENE N. PARKER, University of Chicago (emeritus professor) ROBERT W. SCHUNK, Utah State University GARY P. ZANK, University of California, Riverside Staff ARTHUR CHARO, Study Director ANGELA BABER, Research Assistant (October 10 through December 16, 2005) THERESA M. FISHER, Senior Program Assistant CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Assistant Editor

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Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop SPACE STUDIES BOARD LENNARD A. FISK, University of Michigan, Chair GEORGE A. PAULIKAS, The Aerospace Corporation (retired), Vice Chair SPIRO K. ANTIOCHOS, Naval Research Laboratory DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado RETA F. BEEBE, New Mexico State University ROGER D. BLANDFORD, Stanford University RADFORD BYERLY, JR., University of Colorado JUDITH A. CURRY, Georgia Institute of Technology JACK D. FARMER, Arizona State University JACQUELINE N. HEWITT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DONALD INGBER, Harvard Medical Center RALPH H. JACOBSON, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired) TAMARA E. JERNIGAN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory KLAUS KEIL, University of Hawaii DEBRA S. KNOPMAN, RAND Corporation CALVIN W. LOWE, Bowie State University BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire NORMAN NEUREITER, Texas Instruments (retired) SUZANNE OPARIL, University of Alabama, Birmingham RONALD F. PROBSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DENNIS W. READEY, Colorado School of Mines HARVEY D. TANANBAUM, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory RICHARD H. TRULY, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (retired) J. CRAIG WHEELER, University of Texas, Austin A. THOMAS YOUNG, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) GARY P. ZANK, University of California, Riverside MARCIA S. SMITH, Director

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Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop Preface Among the programs recommended in the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) first decadal survey in solar and space physics was the Small Instrument Distributed Ground-Based Network, which the survey report described as an “NSF program to provide global-scale ionospheric and upper atmospheric measurements for input to global physics-based models.”1 The survey report noted that this concept would “combine state-of-the-art instrumentation with real-time communications technology to provide both broad coverage and fine-scale spatial and temporal resolution of upper atmospheric processes crucial to understanding the coupled AIM [atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere] system” (p. 61). This concept was endorsed in the report from the decadal survey’s Panel on Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interactions, which advised that the National Science Foundation (NSF) “begin an aggressive program to field hundreds of small automated instrument clusters to allow mapping the state of the global [atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere] system.”2 In response to a request from the NSF, an ad hoc NRC committee was formed under the auspices of the Space Studies Board’s Committee on Solar and Space Physics to explore, via a community-based workshop, the scientific rationale, infrastructure needs, and issues related to implementation of what has become known as DASI—distributed arrays of small instruments. The statement of task is given in Appendix A. Participating in the June 2004 workshop held at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, were representatives of the thermosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and solar-heliosphere research communities. In addition, agency representatives from NSF, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Office of Naval Research attended and addressed the relevance of distributed instruments in their future program plans. The workshop agenda and a list of participants are presented in Appendix B. The Ad Hoc Committee on Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Research and Monitoring in Solar-Terrestrial Physics: A Workshop wishes to thank committee member John Foster for his leadership in organizing the workshop and the production of the workshop report that is presented here. As specified in the committee’s statement of task (see Appendix A), this report summarizes the discussions at the workshop and does not present any consensus findings or recommendations. 1   National Research Council (NRC). 2003. The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., p. 73. 2   NRC. 2003. The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: Panel Reports, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., p. 174.

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Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: C. Robert Clauer, University of Michigan, Dale E. Gary, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Raymond A. Greenwald, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, W. Jeffrey Hughes, Boston University, John D. Sahr, University of Washington, and Roger W. Smith, University of Alaska. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Frank B. McDonald, University of Maryland. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION AND WORKSHOP BACKGROUND   4      Space Physics and Space Weather,   4      Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments—The Next Logical Step,   5      The Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics,   6      DASI Workshop,   7 2   COMPELLING SCIENCE   10      Magnetosphere-Ionosphere,   10      Ionosphere-Thermosphere Interactions,   17      Solar: The Sun as a Driver,   20 3   INSTRUMENTS   26      Radiowave Instruments,   26      Magnetometers,   32      Optical Instruments,   32      Solar Monitoring Instruments,   34      Data-Assimilating Computer Models,   37 4   INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUES   38      Information Technology,   38      Instrument Deployment and Logistics,   41 5   SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL WORKSHOP THEMES   43      Next Steps,   44     APPENDIXES         A  Statement of Task   47     B  Workshop Agenda and Participants   49     C  Biographies of Committee Members and Staff   52     D  Acronyms and Glossary   56

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