social amplification. This should be followed by an analysis to assess the trade-off between expected benefit and cost of the proposed solution.

RECOMMENDATION: When considering investments to prevent or mitigate vulnerabilities, DHS should complete an overall risk assessment that would consist of analyzing the combination of vulnerability, threat or likelihood, and consequences of an event.


The findings and recommendations in this report emphasize the importance of the development of new technology and of investment in current technology and also highlight the need to combine this technology with effective communication strategies, reliable and effective mitigation techniques, and preparedness and response strategies. This combination is necessary to minimize the possibility of a terrorist attack and its effects or consequences.

When confronting the potential for terrorist attack, it is essential to constantly reassess both the progress being made and the possibility of unintended consequences when implementing a “solution.” The threat from terrorism is not static, and it is not unreasonable to assume that terrorist tactics will evolve with emerging technologies designed to defeat their threat. Some strategies to address terrorism reduce the chance of a successful attack, some reduce the consequences of such an incident, and some relocate the vulnerability—that is, these strategies may reduce the chance of direct casualties, but still leave financial and cascading impacts. All of these factors must be taken into consideration when assessing vulnerabilities of the chemical infrastructure.

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