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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. CDC-200-2000-00629 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Contract No. HQ/05/076671 between the National Academy of Sciences and the World Health Organization (WHO). The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the CDC or the WHO, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

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Cover: Upper left: Three-dimensional image of a poliovirus virion produced using an electron microscope and X-ray crystallography (courtesy of Robert Grant, Stéphane Crainic, and James Hogle, Harvard Medical School). Center: Egyptian stele with the first-known depiction of a polio victim (courtesy of Ny Carlsbert Glyptotek, Copehnagen), superimposed on the genetic sequence of the poliovirus (courtesy of Eckard Wimmer, State University of New York, Stonybrook).

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